What is molten sodium hydroxide
Subject: Alkaline household cleaners
Subject area: learning workshop
1.) What are household cleaners (in general)?
2.) What is meant by the term "bases"?
4.) Which detergents contain bases?
5.) What is caustic soda?
6.) What is ammonia?
7.) What is calcium hydroxide?
8.) Precautions with bases!
2.) In everyday parlance, a lye means a liquid that tastes sour, has a caustic effect or attacks other substances. If you mix “drain cleaner” with water, you get a lye that is able to dissolve pipe blockages. But this effect also applies to many acids. An exact differentiation is only possible with the help of technical language, but then the chemist speaks of a base. Bases are mainly found as cleaners.
Lye feels soapy.
If you rub a drop of very dilute caustic soda between your fingers, it feels soapy. The lye breaks down the cells of the top layer of skin, which means that the skin becomes a bit greasy on the surface. This phenomenon can also be observed with other alkalis. Alkalis also replace many other materials. Designations such as: caustic soda, caustic potash and caustic lime indicate the caustic effect. You have to be careful with caustic solutions. Lyes have a pH value: 7 - 14. If you hold a strip of universal indicator paper in caustic soda, for example, it turns blue-violet.
Lyes conduct electricity.
If you test the electrical conductivity of distilled water, the lamp in the experimental setup does not light up. If you put a piece of sodium hydroxide in the water, the solution conducts the electric current. In the sodium hydroxide solution there must therefore be a large number of freely moving ions. They take over the cargo transport.
Alkalis contain hydroxide ions.
Solid sodium hydroxide does not conduct electricity, but molten sodium hydroxide does. This is an indication that ions are already present in the solid sodium hydroxide, but that they can only move freely in the melt. Solid sodium hydroxide is made up of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged hydroxide ions. If you put a solid piece of sodium hydroxide into the water, it will dissolve. The ions are distributed evenly in the water. A sodium hydroxide solution is formed. They are also known as caustic soda. The OH- ions are responsible for the chemical behavior of the alkalis. Solutions that contain hydroxide ions are called alkaline solutions or lyes.
3.) Chemical reaction of an acid with a base with the escape of water until an indicator shows neither an acidic nor a basic reaction. à i.e. until there are equal amounts of H and OH ions.
4.) Pipe cleaners contain sodium hydroxide as the main component. If you put this white solid in water, it dissolves with a great deal of heat. Strong caustic caustic soda is produced. This concentrated lye attacks organic substances and breaks them down.
Oven cleaners must remove burnt-in and partially charred food residues. This stubborn dirt can only be softened in a relatively short time by using strong alkaline solutions. This is why these cleaners usually contain sodium or potassium hydroxide and have a pH value of over 10. They are very corrosive. Surfactants support the fat-dissolving effect.
Drain cleaners are also very basic mixtures of substances. They contain aluminum or zinc grains as well as nitrates. These substances react to form gaseous ammonia. The combination of strong base, heat generation during dissolution and mechanical loosening through the development of gas clears clogging of drain pipes.
Sanitary cleaners are disinfecting alkaline cleaners that are specially offered for use in the toilet. The toilet bowl does not need to be disinfected and limescale cannot be removed because the sanitary cleaner is alkaline. Lime and urine scale can only be removed with acids.
5.) Sodium hydroxide is a solid that, like salts, consists of an ion lattice (Na + - ion, OH-- ion). The aqueous solution has a very strong basic effect due to the OH ions and is called sodium hydroxide solution. Similar to strong acids, strongly basic solutions have a caustic effect and are very dangerous. Production: Sodium hydroxide is produced in technology by electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution, together with chlorine. This is why the process is also called chlor-alkali electrolysis. They are used in the manufacture of soaps, in the extraction of aluminum (for cleaning the ore) and in the production of cellulose and rayon.
6.) ammonia (NH3)
Cleaning agents that have a pungent odor are often used in the home. It is the same smell that you notice when you open a bottle of ammonia. The odor is caused by ammonia, a colorless, gaseous compound. This gas dissolves extremely well in water. One liter of water dissolves approx. 750 liters of ammonia at room temperature. The aqueous solution has a weaker basic reaction than caustic soda and is called ammonia in everyday language.
Use: In the laboratory as a lye; for bleaching; in dyeing processes; at architects as a developer for the blueprint process etc. .
Ammonia acts as fish poison in higher concentrations. Strongly alkaline drain cleaners should therefore only be used if mechanical cleaning (e.g. with a suction bell) is no longer possible. The more sparingly we use such basic household chemicals ourselves, the more we do to protect the environment.
The following example shows what happens when the base ammonia gas dissolves in the water:
NH3 + H20 NH4 + + OH-
Ammonia gas + water ammonium ion + OH - - ion
The ammonia removes a positively charged proton from the water molecule and becomes a positively charged NH4 + ion. What remains is an OH- ion. Both ions bring about the properties of the aqueous ammonia solution. In the foreign language, the acid is the opposite of a base. Acids give off protons. Therefore, in our example, the water acts as an acid
7.) Calcium hydroxide (Ca 02H2)
Calcium hydroxide is also a strongly basic substance. Like caustic soda, it consists of an ion lattice. Since calcium, as an element of the 2nd main group, forms double positive ions, there are two single negative OH - ions per Ca2 + ion (charge balance!).
Use: Calcium hydroxide is used in large quantities as building lime or slaked lime for the production of mortar for walls and plastering. Mortar is therefore strongly basic and should therefore never be attacked with the hands.
8.) You have to be very careful when using such aggressive substances. The warning notices on the packaging must be strictly observed! Even small splashes can cause serious injury. The sensitive eyes in particular are at risk. In industry, therefore, very strict regulations apply to the handling of concentrated alkalis: protective clothing with full face protection and protective gloves are mandatory. But chemical pipe cleaners are not only easy to handle, they also pollute the wastewater. In most cases, blocked drains can also be cleaned mechanically, for example with a rubber suction cup. It is even better if you get a drain strainer for the sink. The leftovers get stuck in it and do not even get into the drainpipe.
1.) Under the heading of household cleaners, everything is listed that we need for cleaning and scrubbing in the household. Because a few basic cleaning agents are actually enough for a really clean house. As its name suggests, the all-purpose cleaner is the right product for most household chores. If you want, you can even wash your dishes with the all-purpose cleaner. With all liquid and creamy detergents there is a risk that the detergent will become unusable due to bacterial contamination. Therefore, almost without exception, some form of precaution is taken, i.e. substances are added to prevent infestation. In addition to active ingredients and auxiliaries, household cleaners very often also contain fragrances and dyes to give the products an appealing smell and appearance. This can be a serious problem for allergy sufferers. Cleaners basically consist of soap. Soap is water-soluble and at the same time can dissolve fat due to its special structure. Fat is the most important point of attack in all cleaning processes; depending on the type of cleaner, other substances are added. The soaps used are called Surfactants. Today surfactants are mostly from synthetic production.
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