When did Denmark start to have nobles

The Thirty-Year War

1. The Prague window lintel

The trigger for the Thirty Years' War was the so-called Prague window lintel. This event was preceded by a dispute between the Protestant estates and their Catholic ruler in Bohemia, who was loyal to the emperor. This dispute was about religion and power in Bohemia. On May 23, 1618, dissatisfied Protestant nobles went to Prague Castle and threw three Catholics loyal to the emperor out the window. The three survived, however, because they landed on a dung heap. This lintel was a reinforced version of throwing a gauntlet, a declaration of war on the emperor. That was the official occasion for the war.

2. The reasons for the war

The real reason for the Thirty Years War lay in the religious dispute between the Catholics and the Protestants. But claims to power, ownership and the striving for self-determination of the princes and nobles also played a role. They wanted more power over their provinces, which would have further weakened the central power of the emperor in the empire. In addition, the King of Spain and the House of Habsburg wanted to expand their power over areas of France.

3. Course of the war

Another reason why the war lasted so long was that there was not just one war, but many different wars. A total of five wars followed one another. The countries split into two parties.

The Protestants, which included the King of Sweden, Gustav Adolf, the Palatinate, the Protestant princes and nobles, the King of Denmark and France. France was actually Catholic, but joined Sweden in the campaign against the emperor.

The Catholics included the Spanish King and the House of Habsburg, Emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic princes and bishops.

    1. The Bohemian War (1618-1620)

    Friederich von der Pfalz was defeated by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and Johann von Tilly, the general of the league. After the victory, the emperor had 27 Bohemian nobles publicly executed. Half of the possessions of Bohemia and Moravia were given to the Catholics who were loyal to the emperor.

    2. The Palatinate War (1621-1623)

    The troop leader of the league, Tilly, conquered the Palatinate for the emperor.

    3. The Danish War (1625-1630)

    Albrecht von Wallenstein, a general in the League, conquered northern Germany for the emperor. Thereupon the Protestant king marched from Denmark to northern Germany, but was defeated there by Wallenstein The Thirty Years War.

    4. The Swedish War (1630-1635)

    The Protestant Swedish King Gustav Adolf intervened in the war to expand the Swedish position of power in northern Germany. Another reason was that the Protestants were in a very bad situation in 1630 as the emperor and his allies had won many battles.

    5. The French War (1636-1648)

    Catholic France intervened in the war on the Protestant side. France wanted to weaken the emperor.

4. The outcome of the war

The princes, France and Sweden benefited from this war.
The Kaiser, the House of Habsburg, the German Empire and the people lost.
A third of the German people died as a result of the war.