What grammar rules do fictional authors follow

DIPLOMA THESIS. Title of the thesis. Supernatural - A media anthropological examination of the TV series and its fan fiction.

DIPLOMA THESIS Title of the diploma thesis Supernatural - A media anthropological investigation of the TV series and its fan fiction Author Barbara Ingeborg Ratzenhofer Desired academic degree Magistra of Philosophy (Mag. Phil.) Vienna, 2012 Study number according to study sheet: Study area according to study sheet: Supervisor: A 307 Diploma course in cultural and social anthropology Univ.- Prof. Doz. Elke Mader

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Acknowledgments Univ.- Prof. Doz. Elke Mader Family Friends Thank you for the technical, financial and moral support that made this work possible. 3

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Contents I. Trailer Introduction. 7 II. What happened so far State of research .. 12 II. I. TV and fan fiction in general ... 12 II. II. Supernatural ... 17 II. II. I. In the hunt .... 17 II. II. II. TWC. 22 II. II. III. The Mythology of Supernatural ... 29 II. II. IV. TV Goes to Hell. 30 II. II. V. Online activities .... 34 III. Behind the scenes methodology and method ... 36 III. I. Methodology .. 36 III. I. I. Approaches in cultural studies .. 36 III. I. II. Structural and narratological approaches ... 38 III. II. Method. 40 III. II. I. close reading and wide reading. 40 III. II. II. Narration 41 IV. Analysis of Canon and Fanon .. 43 IV. I. Plot of the Canon ... 43 IV. II Season 1 43 IV. I. II. Season 2 ... 48 IV. I. III . Season 3 ... 51 IV. I. IV. Season 4 ... 54 IV. IV Season 5 ... 57 IV. II. Plot of the Fanon ... 61 IV. II. I. Season 1 ... 61 IV. II. II. Season 2 ... 64 IV. II. III. Season 3 ... 68 IV. II. IV. Season 4 ... 73 5

IV. III. Narration ... 76 IV. IV. Close reading and wide reading .. 79 V. Reasons for fan fiction ... 81 V. I. Intellect. 81 V. II. Innovation ... 83 V. III. Intertext and Metafiction ..... 84 VI. Pointe Conclusio ... 86 VII. Library Bibliography ... 90 VII. I. Books 90 VII. II. Periodicals ... 100 VII. III. Online ... 100 VII. IV. Multimedia ... 104 VII. V. Films and series ... 105 VIII. Abstract. 106 IX. My so-called life curriculum vitae .. 108 6

I. Trailer Introduction It seems worth trying to find out what it is that so many people want so much (Pugh 2005: 11-12) November 2, 1983 a supposed family idyll comes to a cruel end. October 31, 2005 Dean Winchester unexpectedly turns up at his brother Sam's in Stanford. Her father has disappeared without a trace. 7 years later, the Winchester brothers are still in the family business of saving people, hunting monsters. When the pilot of the TV series Supernatural ran on the WB (former TV station of Warner Bros.) on September 13, 2005, no one thought what success it would have. Against all odds, it is now, on another channel (CW) and under new management, in its seventh season, and it has already been officially announced that there will also be an eighth. 33,772 and counting the flood of fan fiction for Supernatural knows no stopping. (http://www.fanfiction.net/tv/ 15.3.2010. 22.58) Leaving the field far behind, this TV series brings a more than considerable volume of artistic fan activity. Officially, the world of Supernatural is expanded to include tie-in novels, comics, companions, books, a magazine, a role playing game (RPG), an online spin-off series and an anime version. In addition to regularly held conventions, the academic world has also become aware of Supernatural, which has already led to three independent publications. From the point of view of the fans, there are then fan fiction, fan vids, various online activities, including their own Wikipedia and much more. The question arises as to how this underdog of a niche network managed it. The first five seasons of Supernatural analyzed in this work consist of a total of 104 episodes, the third season only has sixteen episodes because of the writers strike 1, compared to the usual twenty-two episodes. 1 In 2007 the writers guild went on strike for several months. 7th

There are stand-alone episodes as well as episodes that advance the mythology of the series, the former focusing primarily on the first two seasons, whereas the fourth and fifth seasons are more the latter. The pilot was broadcast in the USA on September 13, 2005, the finale of the fifth season on May 13, 2010. The film was filmed in and around Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, the only exception being the pilot, which was filmed in Los Angeles. The content of the series is, as already mentioned, the lives of two brothers, Sam and Dean Winchester, who are spoiling the fun in the whole United States in search of their missing father John, ghosts and monsters. After John makes a deal with Azazel, the demon who once killed his wife Mary, in exchange for Dean's life, and ends up in Hell, the brothers must try to prevent the demon from opening a gate to Hell. The fact that Sam carries demon blood is as unhelpful as the fact that he is killed shortly before. Now it's Dean’s turn to make a deal to bring Sam back. The gates of hell are opened and thousands of demons are unleashed on humanity, but Azazel is shot by Dean. Despite the help of Ruby, a female demon, Dean drives to hell the price of his brother's life a year later. When Dean is freed from hell by Castiel, an angel, four months later, the Winchesters, Bobby Singer, the second father figure of Sam and Dean and their hunter friends find themselves in the middle of the fight between heaven and hell. Although they cannot prevent Lucifer from walking on earth again, they can still prevent the apocalypse at the last moment. The Virtual Seasons consist of four seasons that were created between summer 2006 and autumn 2010. The first three seasons have twenty-two episodes each, the fourth season has sixteen. This means that fan fiction has the same number of episodes as the first five seasons of Supernatural. The team for the first season consisted of nine people, for the second season of seven people, in the third season as in the first season nine people were involved and in the fourth and final season six people. Of the seventeen participants, three were there from start to finish. (http://www.supernaturalville.com/about.html 02/10/2010) 8

The length of the episodes ranges from less than thirty pages to over a hundred and thirty pages. The story begins with the end of the first season of the TV series. The biggest difference here is that John Winchester survived, but he mostly shines because of his absence. Like the TV series, it consists of stand-alone episodes and those that advance the mythology of the Virtual Seasons. In the fourth season it becomes clear that it is an AU fiction 2. The links to the universe of Supernatural are Castiel and, to a certain extent, the Archangel Michael. In contrast to the TV series, the Winchesters not only have to deal with heaven and hell, but also with various dimensions that their version of Lucifer, in the form of a mafia boss, wants to tear under the nail, but he does not succeed. The anthology Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays by Karen Hellekson and Kristina Busse mainly deals with Slash 3, but Abigail Derecho introduces a new term for the definition of fan fiction in her contribution. After an overview of fan fiction and its history, she determines that fan fiction, until then referred to as derivative or appropriative, can be understood as archontic literature. A literature that is archontic is a literature composed of texts that are archival in nature and that are impelled by the same archontic principle: that tendency toward enlargement and accretion that all archives possess. Archontic texts are not delimited properties with definite borders that can be transgressed. (Derecho 2006: p. 64) In choosing this term, she refers to Jacques Derrida's statement in Archive Fever: A Freudian impression that archives are always open to new contributions, etc. (cf. Derecho 2006) There is no question that this new term is more suitable than its predecessor due to the lack of devaluation of fan fiction. However, in my opinion it is problematic when it comes to statements about fan fiction in general. If you visit the platform http://www.fanfiction.net/tv/ in the case of Supernatural, you will come across countless archives of fan fiction, some of which are very clear from the others or which strictly reject their content. 2 AU stands for Alternative Universe, meaning the world in which the characters act follows different rules than those in the original text. 3 slash stories mainly deal with sexual relationships between characters that in the Canon do not have any. 9

For example archives that do not accept Slash, AU s or DeathFics 4. Archives follow a collection order, in other words a control body, whatever it looks like, determines what is included in the archive and what is not. Based on this, I would like to bring another suggestion for the definition of fan fiction into the discussion of expletive literature. If expletiv is used from the late Latin expletivus or the Latin explere, it would be a supplementary or complementary literature. The term is therefore neither judgmental nor does it have the slight aftertaste of control. The aim of this work is to investigate which aspects of Supernatural offer such a rich breeding ground for so many creative discussions. Considered in detail, compared to a specific project, the Virtual Seasons. The first part of the work provides an overview of reception research and audience studies through to studies of fans and fan fiction and their respective general history, while the second part, an analysis of the first five seasons of the TV series and all four seasons of the Virtual Seasons will include. The last two seasons of the TV series are not included in this work for two reasons; Firstly, the first five seasons, under the direction of Erik Kripke, form a closed story arc and secondly, because the Virtual Seasons ended at the same time as said season and thus the sixth and seventh seasons could no longer have any influence on fan fiction. On the subject of fan fiction, Derecho is the first to speak, followed by Pugh's theories on fan fiction. Starting with the research of Fiske and Hartley on the subject of reception, it goes on to Peterson's ethnography to Henry Jenkins and Michel de Certeau's concept of poaching and finally to Matt Hill's suggestion of autoethnography. Then the four publications on Supernatural that have appeared so far are presented, the anthology In the Hunt edited by supernatural.tv, the special edition of the TWC edited by Catherine Tosenberger, Nathan Robert Brown's The Mythology of Supernatural: Signs and Symbols Behind the Popular TV Show and finally the anthology TV Goes to Hell edited by Stacey Abbott and David Lavery. The analysis in the 4 In these stories, characters from the canon are killed in fan fiction. 10

The second part of the work is based on cultural, structural and narrative approaches. In the third and final part of the work, the various reasons for writing fan fiction are presented. The aim is to shed light on the mystery of supernatural and to explain the phenomenon of such high levels of creative fan activity. Since the gender aspects of the series, especially the focus on slash, have already been brought into the academic discussion in many places, these two topics are only touched on in passing, as they only play a subordinate role for the question at hand here. 11

II. What happened so far State of research II. I. TV and fan fiction in general When Arthur Conan Doyle killed his character Sherlock Holmes in 1893, he was prepared for criticism. What he didn't anticipate was the 20,000 canceled subscriptions to the magazine that readers would wear in the streets of London and that he would become the recipient of hate letters beginning with You brute. (cf. Pugh 2005: pp. 17-18) Holmes grew less and less, until nothing was left save a ring of smoke which slowly circled to the ceiling. The last words of great men are often noteworthy. These were the last words of Sherlock Holmes. Fool, fool! I have kept you in luxury for years. By my help, you have ridden extensively in cabs, where no author was ever seen before. Henceforth, you will ride in buses! J.M. Barrie (Pugh 2005: pp. 18-19) While the lines quoted here by Conan Doyle's friend and author J.M. Barrie presumably represent the beginning of fan fiction about Sherlock Holmes, (cf. Pugh 2005: p. 19), research has not yet been able to agree on when fan fiction first entered our creative lives, because it There is not even a generally accepted definition. Derecho emphasizes that we cannot determine the beginning is mainly due to the problem that copyright, in the millennia since the first written and oral histories of mankind, is still a very young concept that legally codified the idea of ​​an author 5 for the first time . One of the ways to distinguish fan fiction from professional is this existence of a copyright. Before the copyright came about, so-called copying was a common practice and nobody gave it a thought. Nobody wrinkled their noses when the authors of the Middle Ages used ancient myths and stories, or put their own versions of the stories on parchment. Admittedly, this would still be possible today, but only because for 5 The masculine form of formulation is used here and in the rest of the text for better readability, but should be understood as gender-neutral. 12th

copyright no longer applies to these stories. In addition, it is generally assumed that myths, legends and the like belong to everyone and they can do whatever they want with it. Derecho almost summarizes this dilemma in a very compact way, because it lists three possibilities of definition. First, that fan fiction has existed since the beginning of human communication that goes beyond life-sustaining; secondly, the fan fiction of the 1920s about Sherlock Holmes or the novels Jane Austen or the boom triggered by Star Trek in the late 60s is used for dating, and thirdly, that the first possibility is too broad, while the second is too narrow and one therefore has to look for ways to define fan fiction more precisely in order to be able to assign it its rightful place in literature. (cf. Derecho 2006: p. 62) For the present work I tend towards Pugh's definition of fan fiction. Myself I would go along with those who define fan fiction as writing, whether official or unofficial, paid or unpaid, which makes use of an accepted canon of characters, settings and plots generated by another writer or writers. This source material may come from books, films or TV, and in the latter two cases it will not derive purely from writers but also from directors, producers and even actors, all of whom have a hand in the creation of characters. (Pugh 2005: pp. 25-26) The reasons why people produce fan fiction in the first place almost Pugh in two apt terms put together more of and more from. Under more of is to be understood that you want the story to go on, while more from refers to the fact that you want to get more out of the story, for example decorating supporting characters or focusing on subordinate storylines. This results in countless types of fan fiction, but they all have something in common. Fan fiction writers enjoy the luxury of a specifically educated and informed readership. No matter how complex the stories or how incidentally or tiny references are given, unlike their professional colleagues, the writers of Fan Fiction can be sure that they will be understood. Pugh addresses this issue in her publication, but she is certainly not the first, and unfortunately will not be the last, to discover this lack of general education in today's societies. (see Pugh 2005) 13

Various branches of science have been dealing with the phenomenon of fan fiction for a while, but mostly concentrate on the fans, topics related to fan fiction or questions of legal and societal criticism. Because of this, on closer inspection there are not as many studies as it appears at first glance. Since the example chosen here is fan fiction for a TV series, it is necessary to briefly go a little further for a theoretical overview of the topic and to first deal with the television audience in general. 6 One of the difficulties in explaining the television audience anthropologically is that we have no definition or even a vaguely clear idea of ​​what this audience is. People simply cannot be fixed in space and time in order to allow themselves to be scientifically defined. I therefore agree with Ien Ang when she says about the role of cultural and social anthropology in this research area: It is both the dynamic complexity and the complex dynamics in the interface of this dialectic that ethnographic understanding can put into discourse a never-ending discourse that can enhance a truly public and democratic conversation about the predicaments of our television culture .. (Ang 1991: p. 170) In Desperately Seeking the Audience she compares the TV system in the USA with that of Europe, whose main focus is not on the suggestion of consumption, but pursues an educational mandate.In both systems, however, the audience is understood as an uncontrollable mass. Of course, the world of television has changed tremendously since 1991. What hasn't changed is the somewhat self-destructive need of producers to know and measure their audience. Self-destructive in the sense that no matter how aggressively they try to shape or homogenize the audience according to their good thinking, within the global structural frameworks of television provisions that the institutions are in the business to impose on us, actual audiences are constantly negotiating to appropriate those provisions in ways amenable to their concrete social worlds and historical situations .. (Ang 1991: p. 170) One of the main studies in the area of ​​TV and television audience, alongside John Fiskes and John Hartley's Reading Television, is Fiskes Television Culture, a study in which he understands the audience as the reader of a given text. He focuses on the 6 The following argument by Ang, Fiske and Hartley is based on a seminar paper from 2009. 14

on [] the formal qualities of television programs and their flow, the intertextual relations of television within itself, with other media, and with conversation, and the study of socially situated readers and the process of reading .. (Fiske 1987: p. 16 Fiske's result is that the audience, in their function as readers, has the ability to give the images shown their own meaning and to create their pleasure with and within this process. (cf. Fiske 1987: p. 17) Since humans tend to be subject to a certain competitive thinking in the company of other people, they judge how others pass their time, be it literature, music, cinema or even television. Since the 1970s at the latest, the bottom layer of the hierarchy that has been created by TV series has been fan of fan fiction. Audience studies, although shifting attention from texts to the processes and situations of their interpretation, have nonetheless tended to reproduce this paradigm by putting the text and its interpretation at the center of meaning making. [] studies of reception (reading, hearing, viewing) and interpretation map only a small part of the terrain of social life in which media play a role. The ethnography of intertextuality offers a useful supplement to text- and reception-based approaches to media study and pays attention to the structural features of texts and to sites of reception, but it examines these in relation to the many other activities in which people make use of media. (Peterson 2005: p. 136) Mark Allen Peterson sees here the connection between the early review research and the more recent media anthropological or audience studies, to which the studies on fan fiction in the broader sense belong, in ethnography. In his 2003 publication he dedicates several chapters to the explanations that not only have to be examined what people are looking at, but how, in which environment and which context. (cf. Peterson 2003) in this book he sees fans as consumers who, through the discourse they raise about the manner of their consumption, enable the researcher to investigate patterns in this constantly changing consumption of texts (cf. Peterson 2003: P. 151). He also goes into the social aspects in his investigation from the formation of groups to fan clubs to, in his opinion typical for America, the formation of subcultures and inevitably comes across Henry Jenkins. Hello. My name is Henry. I am a fan. 15th

Somewhere in the late 1980s, I got tired of people telling me to get a life. I wrote a book instead. (Jenkins 2006a: p. 1) Textual Poachers by Henry Jenkins, together with Lisa A. Lewis The Adoring Audience, marks the beginning of a new way of looking at fans in science, who, as one can certainly say, were until then often rated as socially disturbed. When trying to explain fan behavior, Jenkins resorted to Michel de Certeau's concept of poaching. De Certeau s notion of textual poaching focuses attention on the social agency of readers. The reader is drawn not into the preconstructed world of the fiction but rather into a world she has created from the textual materials. Here, the reader s pre-established values ​​are at least as important as those preferred by the narrative system. (Jenkins 1992: p. 63) Poaching basically means that fans, in the case of a TV series, authors and producers, questioning the given meaning of events in the story or how the story should be read. Through the creative examination of the text, you will go from passive spectators to active participants in the construction and the various meanings that a text can assume or have. (cf. Jenkins 1992: pp. 23-24) Like Jenkins back then, Peterson sees the interface between reception research and fan research in the various forms of consumption and production in the context of hierarchy, diction, technology and capitalism. On the fact that his book, How the Bible of Fan Research is treated, he says in a dialogue with Matt Hills, the author of Fan Cultures: I ve written tons about audiences since then, but people almost always go back to the moment of Poachers, which is historically specific in the development of the field, the history of fandom, and it s on the eve of the Internet explosion in fandom which changed almost everything I talk about, one way or another. To go back to that work, as if that was the right tool to unlock the present moment without regard to the fan community, the text, the historical moment, the medium of expression that s my worst nightmare. (Jenkins 2006a: p. 36) In this conversation, Jenkins emphasizes that he is of the opinion that it is time Textual Poachers to let Textual Poachers be and to orientate himself on more recent studies. (cf. Jenkins 2006a: p. 36) Hills, Jenkins' impetus to take a new approach to researching fans had already followed four years earlier with his study on Cult TV. In this study, he makes comparisons between academics and 16

Fans, deals with Jenkins Textual Poachers and thus de Certeau's The Practice of Everyday Life and refers to Pierre Bourdieu's work on processes of cultural distinction offers a way for theorists to analyze how fan status is built up (Hills 2002: p 46) As a possible methodology for current research, he also presents autoethnography, in which the researcher examines his own fan behavior in order to identify dynamics that can help him understand the fans he is investigating. Furthermore, the recording of the auto-ethnography of the studied fans can provide information about their behavior. (Hills 2002: p. 72) II. II. Supernatural II. II. I. In the Hunt The first publication on Supernatural, with academic contributions, was In the Hunt, an anthology with 22 articles, published in 2009 by supernatural.tv has been. The posts focus on the first three seasons of the series, as they were written between the third and fourth seasons. In his preface, tie-in author Keith R.A. DeCandido is what makes Supernatural special for him, from the Winchester family to humor and, for him, the most important thing, music. (cf. DeCandido 2009) This foreword is followed by the introduction by Kittsbud, the then webmaster of supernatural.tv, which can definitely be described as a declaration of love. (cf. supernatural.tv 2009) In her essay, Tanya Huff examines John Winchester, Sam and Dean's father, who is the subject of discussion among fans both during his lifetime and afterwards. Your conclusion is positive, despite all the adverse circumstances, he was a very good father to his sons. (cf. Huff 2009) Dodger Winslow deals with the dichotomy in Supernatural, embodied by the different brothers. She also asks what influence this has on the perception of fans themselves and others, and what is reality and what is fantasy. (cf. Winslow 2009) She comes to the conclusion that Dean is who we want to be; Sammy is who we are. Dean is our self-perception; Sammy is our self-reality. Dean is a storyteller's hero myth; Sammy is the reality about which every story is told, even if other people star in them on occasion to the 17th

perception that it s all about Dean, when it s really all about the burden of being Sammy .. (Winslow 2009: p. 25) Randall M. Jensen faces the philosophical challenge of defining supernatural in the universe of Supernatural. He refers to David Hume in his statement that the supernatural has long been naturalized for the two and explains the use of the word supernatural by George Berkeley, i.e. the communication with everyone, including the viewers and fans who have nothing to do with the Hunting to do is simplified. Every now and then, however, the brothers stumble over something that they cannot explain, especially angels, and the different reactions Sam and Dean show to it, according to Jensen, give a deep insight into how the characters are knitted. The recent change in the horror genre, on the one hand the naturalization of the supernatural and on the other hand the expansion of the known nature, finally lead him to the realization that in the end it is known circumstances, such as the loss of a loved one, that scare the Winchester brothers. (cf. Jensen 2009) Why people are so fascinated by horror stories and what is special about Supernatural are just two questions that Gregory Stevenson deals with in his essay. He comes in relation to Bruno Bettleheim, J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis concludes that children, but above all adults, need these stories and fairy tales in order to be able to face their own, mostly non-concrete fears. His considerations as to whether Supernatural would be atheistic have been outdated since Castiel's first appearance, but his statement that [] demons are metaphors of the human potential for evil. In fact, they represent the fulfillment of that potential [], has validity. (Stevenson 2009: p. 44) I do not share his assumption that Bela is closer to demons than humans, but his assumption that Ruby is more human than other demons is refuted by the events in the fourth and fifth seasons. However, since he had no knowledge of this at the time of publication, he apparently belongs to the group that, like Sam and, to a certain extent, Dean, were deceived by her. Stevenson ends his essay by stating that Sam and Dean always move in opposite directions in their development, which he regards as an example of the potential development of every human being. He concludes that Supernatural is more about natural than supernatural. (see Stevenson 2009) 18

In her essay, Avril Hannah-Jones explores the origins of good and bad as a dichotomy in the series, in a religious context. From the decisions that every character, be it a demon, has to make to Sam as Lucifer and Dean as Christ figure, she sees Sam and Dean as angel figures with the information until the end of the third season. In the end, she comes to the conclusion that the supernatural, like others, can give the viewer the hope that evil can be defeated and that one always has a choice. Hannah-Jones even goes so far as to call the brothers role models despite all their flaws. (cf. Hannah-Jones 2009) Robert T. Jeschonek's essay sees Supernatural from a different perspective, that of demons, ghouls, vampires and the like. Logically, the real monsters are Sam and Dean Winchester who make the world unsafe and when he asked whether the two are similar to the other monsters, the answer is definitely yes. (cf. Jeschonek 2009) Another, even two, yes, the answer to Tanya Michaels' question is whether Dean is a fearless hunter or a mom. Just for the record, being a mom and being a bad-ass aren t mutually exclusive. (Michaels 2009: p. 86). Amy Garvey deals in her essay with renunciation and heroism in Supernatural. She tries to find out how the behavior of the brothers influenced who they became at the end of the third season. (see Garvey 2009) All of the Winchesters are heroes. Dean is simply the only one who doesn't know it. (Garvey 2009: p. 96) Sheryl A. Rakowski's essay also deals with heroism in the supernatural universe and examines the family dynamics between John, Dean and Sam. She concludes that her heroism lies in doing anything for her family. (cf. Rakowski 2009) Based on Jo, Ellen and Meg, Mary Borsellino illuminates the misogyny in the series and the sadly sad answer is that being taken seriously and left alive as a man in Supernatural is much more likely. (cf. Borsellino 2009) Why so many women still watch Supernatural is the subject of Jacob Clifton's essay. He compares Supernatural with Smallville, representative of typically male subjects, and Buffy, again representative of typically female subjects. Clifton argues that these two series never leave that concept

whereas Supernatural mixes both. Masculine characters traversing a female landscape, addressing it through archetypally male modes of heroism: that s a gender double-twist. (Clifton 2009: p. 123). Another reason, in his opinion, is the reversed focus from season to season, first it's about John, then Mary or Azazel and then Lilith. In addition to the alternating roles of Sam and Dean, the Colt and Ruby's knife, he contrasts Sam and Dean, Ruby and Bella. If I'm not mistaken, Clifton tries to say that Supernatural is keeping its viewers and fans in abeyance and is doing well with it. (cf. Clifton 2009) Carol Poole analyzes in her essay the death of Mary Winchester, [] which also seems to mirror America's traumatic loss of the coherent, stable mythologies of our mother countries .. (Poole 2009: p. 153) Emily Turner's essay deals with fan fiction about Supernatural, more precisely she looks at Wincest, crackfic, these are stories in which the rules or laws given in the Supernatural universe are overridden, and genderswap when the brothers become sisters. She argues that the transgression in the series expands the range of fan fiction to Supernatural. (cf. Poole 2009) Finding out how the Winchesters get by with as little money as possible is the subject of Jamie Chambers' essay. His list of options shows that although the two have to compromise, they have learned to enjoy the simple things in life. (cf. Chambers 2009) Probably a fictional love story on Heather Swain, which tells in e-mails, letters and newspaper articles how Supernatural brought two people together; (cf. Swain 2009) follows Jules Wilkinson's hymn to the Impala, the home and protector of the Winchester family. In her analysis of how many roles the '67 Chevrolet Impala slips in the course of the series, it becomes clear that she is a full member of the family, even if she is only made of metal and is blessed with a preference for gasoline instead of beer or whiskey. (cf. Wilkinson 2009) Mary Fechter ascribes a similar role to the Impala, she concentrates above all on the connection between Dean and the Impala. (cf. Fechter 2009) Because with all the things that this car represents, it is above all an outward sign of Dean s subconscious. (Fechter 2009: p. 216) Where Wilkinson and Fechter focus on the Dean and Impala connection, Tracy S. Morris sees a connection between John and the Colt, the 20th century

At least until the third season could still be seen as omnipotent, two seasons later the opposite is the case. (cf. Morris 2009) Amy Berner concentrates in her essay on Gordon Walker, first hunter later vampire. According to their analysis, Gordon represents what can go wrong and acts as a warning example for Sam and Dean, at least for the first three seasons, because in my opinion Gordon's story repeats itself, he tries to make the best of being a vampire and so tries to kill Sam. In the fourth season Sam tries to do supposedly good by consuming demon blood. (cf. Berner 2009) Maria Lima, in turn, examines the role of the trickster in Supernatural by looking at the various trickster characters in several mythologies and their versions in other media. Until the end of the third season, the trickster's attempts to change the way the brothers think about their relationships with one another in Supernatural are unsuccessful. (cf. Lima 2009) After a condensed overview of the origins of the legends and mythologies used in Supernatural, London E. Brickley closes the anthology with an analysis of the origins of the urban myths in Supernatural. (cf. Brickley 2009) In addition, she notes that the new media are accelerating the spread of these stories. Where such mass exposure and easy accessibility might de-romanticize these sources, making them seemingly less desirable to draw from in researching rusalkas and banshees, it actually allows them to hold more power. As they reflect sources created by the current population, they are the ideas, interests, values, and beliefs of the modern audience in other words, mythology at its most up-to-date .. (Brickley 2009: p. 268) My conclusion of the anthology corresponds to that of Alysa Hornick, who, as mentioned later, wrote a review of In the Hunt. Aside from the unavoidable tensions between academia and fans, the book also reveals a consistent and troubling gendered divide between stereotypically male and female interests in the show and its fandom so much so that it may color some readers receptivity to the ideas presented. (Hornick 2010: 3) 21

II. II. II. TWC The Transformative Works and Cultures Journal (TWC) selected Supernatural for its first fan-focused special edition during the broadcast of the fifth season in the USA.In her editorial, editor Catherine Tosenberger first of all addresses the choice of the series that made it to eleventh place in Entertainment Weekly's 25 Greatest Cult TV Shows Ever list in September 2009. The reason for this, however, was not the content of the series itself, but the creative productions of its fans. Particular attention was paid to Wincest, a section of fan fiction in which the Winchester brothers are lovers. A circumstance that could have led to various heated reactions if, on the one hand, the magazine itself had not dealt with it in an earlier issue and, on the other hand, the series itself illuminated both its fans and Slash in its own way in several meta episodes . One of these episodes, 5.09 The Real Ghostbusters, was only broadcast after the editorial deadline and was only scrutinized by Tosenberger. Your verdict the worst of all meta-episodes! The female fans, represented by the character Becky Rosen, are portrayed as creepy, but quite manageable in bed, while Demian and Barnes represent the stupid but lovable male fan who, compared to Becky, is not only allowed to keep the bed warm for the hero , can be heroic yourself. In the mandatory overview of the journal's content, which is divided into a practical part with academic essays, a symposium in which fan and academic perspectives are combined, as well as interviews and reviews of publications and games that have already appeared on the series, the focus is primarily on the Essays mainly on gender, religion, folklore and transformative work. (cf. Tosenberger 2010a) In her essay, Tosenberger illuminates the use of fairy tales in Supernatural, specifically in episode 3.05 Bedtime Stories, and fan fiction for the series. The work of Mikel J. Koven, Linda Dégh and Andreas Vázsanyi, as well as Jan Harold Brunvand on the subject of ostension form the basis for their investigation. Under ostension, these authors understand, in summary, a showing or living out of the story in contrast to the simpler reproduction of the events. However, since ostension mostly refers to legends, their very active use ends in 22

Supernatural with the fourth and fifth seasons focused on myths. Tosenberger compares and contrasts Supernatural and The X-Files, as the latter was myth-oriented from the start. After a general overview of the history of fairy tales, from their first recordings to their rediscovery after their Disneyfication, the main focus of her article is the gender problem in fairy tales, in Supernatural and their use in fan fiction. This problem lies in the tension between fairy tales and fan fiction, which in their opinion are valued as childish-female pastimes and the increasingly male-dominated narrative style or orientation of the series, which at the beginning was still balanced, in episode 3.09 Malleus Maleficarum its thoroughly misogynistic Reached its climax and marked a turning point in the series, face each other. Where Sam and Dean only act as outsiders in the fairy tale world in 3.05, they are in the middle of the action and fully integrated in the fan fictions. (cf. Tosenberger 2010c) Lisa Schmidt's essay illuminates the reactions of fans to the meta-episodes already mentioned and especially the mention of Wincest with the help of Ien Ang's theory of melodramatic identification. Specifically, it is about the reactions to 4.18 The Monster at the End of This Book and 5.01 Sympathy for he Devil. She successfully argues that Melodrama Supernatural, not only through the expanded definition of text compared to Ang, but also through Singer's five concepts for characterizing melodrama nontraditional narrative structure, sensationalism, moral polarization, pathos and overwrought emotion (Schmidt 2010: 4.5). She can reduce the reactions to the meta-episodes to three levels, the text itself, the insult to the fans in general and the mention of Wincest. Schmidt concentrates on the last two, arguing that the criticism of the text has existed as long as stories have been and are being told. Despite the general positive reaction from fans, some were offended by the portrayal of fans, as it strained the fragile relationship between the two sides too much for some. After an overview of Slash in general, in which she underlines that Slash puts his main focus on feelings and their expression, it becomes clear that the insult in the episode is on the one hand in the false reduction to an incestuous love relationship and on the other hand, viewer with one Subgenre faced by fan fiction that they can actually only misunderstand as well as it was presented. Slash 23

is a very complex topic, both within different fan groups and as one of the main topics in the academic discussion of fan fiction. (cf. Schmidt 2010) Melissa N. Bruce analyzes in her essay the use and meaning of the 1967 Chevrolet Impala, which takes on the role of the home of the Winchester in the series, but is at the same time a signifier for Dean's emotions. Especially in the fourth season, at the beginning of which the Impala is briefly owned by Sam, in their opinion it increasingly reflects the dissolving relationship between Sam and Dean. (cf. Bruce 2010) Berit Ǻström's essay on MPREG (male pregnancy) does away with the rapidly changing prejudices that these stories are subversive and reactionary. Despite the fact that a male pregnancy raises questions about gender, identity, and the like, it becomes clear that none of the stories she has analyzed have any real significance. Rather, it is about exploring Sam and Dean as fathers and the narration itself makes use of all the clichés available to it of the traditional portrayal of family and pregnancy. (cf. Ǻström 2010) Line Nybro Petersen's essay focuses on the new perspectives of religious concepts through Supernatural. With the help of three concepts of mediatization, cognitive anthropology and social theory, she examines the occult, deals with the concept of religion and religious representations. (Petersen 2010: 0.1) In particular, the concept of banal religion introduced by Hjarvard (Petersen 2010: 1.5), i.e. the amalgam of institutional religions, myths and superstitions, which is increasingly on the rise in the West, dominates their argumentation, with the result that Supernatural provides a framework for renegotiating our religious imaginations. (ibid: 6.2) (cf. Petersen 2010) Another essay on the first meta-episode of Supernatural is the analysis of 4.18, but also 5.01 as well as cult fans and the relationship between fans and producers of the series by Laura E. Felschow. Supernatural has blossomed into a cult text without being propagated by its makers. Drawing on the work of Catherine Johnson, Henry Jenkins, John Tulloch and Camille Bacon-Smith, she successfully argues that Supernatural is a perfect example of a cult text. In Felschow's further preoccupation with cult fans, she also increasingly works 24

with Matt Hill's insights into the changed relationship between fans and producers in the age of the Internet. Your analysis of 4.18 comes to the result that in the case of Supernatural this relationship is to be viewed ambiguously, since the episode makes it clear that the producers always end up on the longer branch. (cf. Felschow 2010) In the last essay of the practical part, Monica Flegel and Jenny Roth examine the similarities and differences between Slash and J2 Real Person Slash. You mainly concentrate on rather dark stories, but you can generally find that in this case, Jensen and Jared have a better chance of a happy ending with their families and friends than the mostly completely isolated Sam and Dean. According to Flegel and Roth, the romance in the J2 stories itself primarily follows heterosexual narrative styles, while potential homosexual themes are mostly reduced to positive but also negative reactions from the social environment. Slash stories, on the other hand, create at least room for discussion, if not nearly as much as possible. However, the authors often refer to the work of Tosenberger, who successfully argues that dealing with socio-political issues is not the aim of previous slashlite literature and thus the result of Flegel and Roth is hardly surprising. (cf. Flegel / Roth 2010) The first contribution to the symposium is the comparison of Deepa Sivarajan's by Jorge Luis Borges Tlön, Uqbar, and Orbis Tertius from 1962 with Supernatural. Sivarajan asks what influence fan productions have on the Canon. Your answer is that fan fiction, videos and especially criticism in internet forums have an influence if the producers were inclined to change something in advance (e.g. removing female characters) whereas criticism of racism, sexism and homophobic statements are ignored . (cf. Sivarajan 2010) Louisa Ellen Stein uses two fan videos to examine the so-called millennial generation, i.e. those people who were born between 1970 and 1990. Studied by scholars such as Stephen Prothero, William Strauss and Neil Howe, this generation, according to Strauss and Howes, shows more interest in religion, whereas Prothero and various statistics are convinced otherwise. Stein argues that the millennial generation tends to want to be open and tolerant towards everything and to focus on the well-being in this world. The exploration of faith, morals, dogma and 25

Religions is also one of the main topics of Supernatural from the fourth season and thus offers further material for the ongoing discussion. She sees the production of videos as one of the most important means of expression for fans, along with writing fan fiction, even if this has only been possible for a few decades due to technical reasons. (cf. Stein 2010) Kristin Noone's contribution deals with Adam, the third Winchester brother, but only in 4.19 Jump the Shark. It shows how the producers were actually able to avoid threats to the existing family dynamics through the visual representation as well as the story itself. (cf. Noone 2010) The analysis of Sam and Dean's body in Canon with Fanon is the subject of Suzette Chan's contribution. While she successfully identifies Dean as Foucault's hero and Sam's body as Gothic, she shows that, contrary to the usual guidelines of CW, both brothers in fan fiction also have permanent physical and not just metaphysical scars from their lives. (cf. Chan 2010) While Babak Zarin is analyzing a video that, based on Dante's inferno, shows Sam's path through hell in search of Dean; (cf. Zarin 2010), Melissa Gray sums up the joint journey of Supernatural and its fans. From the well-intentioned criticism of sexism and racism in the series, the constant change from horror series to fantasy, which offers fans a whole universe for creative discussion, to the portrayal of fans in the series itself, which is sometimes positively and sometimes negatively perceived . Last but not least, she also mentions Wincest. Your conclusion at the beginning of the fifth season, even if there is sometimes criticism, Supernatural can be sure of its loyal fans. (cf. Gray 2010) Katharina Freund analyzes a video that creatively implements the misogyny criticism of the third season, especially 3.09, on LiveJournal, with a good dose of black humor. The initially constructive criticism finally ended in wild disputes. However, she identifies all of this as a fertile breeding ground for detailed analyzes of the Canon, which led to further videos and thus a positive effect. The basic problem that the female characters of the series get a lot more negative reactions and reviews from the mostly female fans than the Winchester, remains unsolved. (cf. Freund 2010) 26

The last contribution to the symposium part of Jules Wilkinson's Journal deals with the tension between Canon and Fanon and what the actors of the series think of fan fiction. From the divided opinions of the fans about whether the creators of the series should have any official knowledge of it, to Misha Collins 'Twitter adventures, she spans the events starting with Jensen Ackles' first question in 2007 about fan fiction. She argues that the discussion has fundamentally changed since 4.18 at the latest, Fanon influenced the Canon and this changed Canon in turn the Fanon, how else could it be explained that 3 days after the broadcast of 5.01 the Winchest story of Becky became a whole story expanded under her penname was put online. In addition to fan fiction by Erik Kripke himself, the brilliant climax of this development is the tweets of Misha Collins Persona and her minions, which in turn are creatively edited by fans. (cf. Wilkinson 2010) The interview part consists of 3 interviews, Catherine Tosenberger interviewed Keith R.A. together with Kristina Busse and Karen Hellekson. de Candido and Ethrosdemon, the organizer of Wincon, while Deborah Kaplan talks to the superwiki administration team. De Candido, himself a fan of the series, is the author of the first three tie-in novels for Supernatural. In their e-mail interview they talked about how much fun it is to write tie-in novels, the differences to fan fiction, what he likes about Supernatural and about his novels. (cf. Tosenberger 2010b) Ethrosdemon is the founder and organizer of Wincon, formerly the Winchester Convention, an annual convention by fans for fans, since 2006 with 100 to a maximum of 250 guests. Basically a party where LiveJournal friends (and other fans) can meet and have fun. The interview deals with the organization, what happens and what events take place, the comparison with the big conventions of the producers and the fan base on the Internet. (cf. Tosenberger 2010d) The interviewed superwiki team consisting of Hope, Leandra, Jules and Vanae discusses with Kaplan how the site came about, who does what, what makes up the now excellent 7 site and which software is used. (see Kaplan 2010) 7 SFX Best franchise Specific website award 2011 (supernaturalwiki 2012: 2.6 17.31) 27