In what century did Harshas rule

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Harsha »Origin and History

Emperor Harshavardhana, better known as Harsha, lived from 590 to 647 CE and was the third ruler of the Vardhana Empire, the last great empire in ancient India before the Islamic invasion. He ruled from 606 647 CE CE. After Harshavardhana's death, however, the Vardhana dynasty came to an end and his empire dissolved.
India, the land across the Indus River, had many rulers who dreamed of conquering the vast land and ruling from the Himalayas in the north to Deccan in the south, from the mountains of Kandahar in the west to Assam in the east, but very few able to subdue history at their will. Harshavardhana was such a ruler. His empire may not be as big as the great Mauryan, but it deserves special mention. After the fall of the great Gupta Empire in the mid-6th century CE, under which India was its own golden age, it was Harshavardhana, unified most of northern India, and ruled for four decades from its capital, Kannauj.

POWER & military campaigns are rising

The Vardhana dynasty began Prabhakarana Vardhana ruled the kingdom of Thaneshwar, modern-day Haryana. Queen Yasovati's Prabhakarana gave birth to two sons Rajyavardhana and Harshawardhana and a daughter named Rajyashri, who was later married to King Grahvarmana Kanyakubja modern-day Kannauj. This was a time of tension as India often had to deal with the Huns invading Central Asia. Once, Emperor Skandagupta of the Gupta Empire laid a crushing defeat on these barbaric tribes, yet these constant battles were so costly that they weakened the realm's core, and this eventually led to the downfall of the Gupta Empire. As the western borders of India and areas adjacent to the Indus River were under the occupation of the Huns, skirmishes between the Huns and Thaneshwar were regular. Harsha and his brother were busy with the Huns in the west, King Prabhakarana died in Thaneshwar. He was followed by his eldest son, Rajyavardhana.
After the death of his brother, at the age of 16, the undisputed rulers of the Thaneshwar Harshavardhana and Sasaka were declared to avenge his brother and began a campaign of Digvijay, i.e. to conquer the world.
Meanwhile in the east far larger events were happening that changed the course of history. Sasaka, King of Gauda, ​​modern day Bengal, marched and King Grahvarmana, Rajyashri's husband, killed and then kidnapped. The kidnapping of his sister forced the older brother of Vardhana to march east and confront Sasaka. Sasaka then invited Rajyavardhana for a meeting and insidiously killed him. After his brother's death, at the age of 16, Thaneshwar became the undisputed rulers of Harshavardhana and Sasaka, and began a campaign to avenge his brother Digvijay, i.e. to conquer the world (which in this context means to conquer all of India). But if his main enemy was now Sasaka, an angry brother had to anger. Harsha issued a proclamation to all kings who were known to declare allegiance to him or put him on the battlefield. As Sasaka's enemies complied with Harsha's request, he marched on Kannuaj.
Although there is no evidence, a story claims in Harshacharitra, Rajyashri, when escaped from prison in the Mumbai forest. Hearing this, Harsha hastily went to the forest to save her and only found her when she wanted to commit suicide by throwing herself into a fire. To save his sister, he rejoined his army on the banks of the Ganges. After that, Harsha easily captured Kannauj when Sasaka went back to Bengal, and so a long hostility began. It was only after Sasaka's death that Harsha was able to control all of Eastern India including Magadha, Bengal and Kalinga.
Harsha Digvijay, or the conquest of the world, had begun. After Kannauj, he turned his attention to Gujarat. He defeated the local Valabhi kingdom and expanded his empire. However, this rapid expansion created tension between him and the Chalukya king Pulakesin II. It was now that the most powerful empires of northern and southern India came face to face on the battlefield on the banks of the Narmada River. In the end, the southerners continued under the capable leadership of Pulakesin II, leaving the ambitious northern ruler, Harsha, defeated. They say Harsha lost his courage when he saw his elephants die in battle.
Harsha entered a peace treaty with the Chalukya king who established the Narmada River as the southern limit of his empire and after which he never advanced south again. But this did not stop with his conquest of the north. He took the title sakalUttaraPathaNatha(Lord of North India). Hieun Tsang tells us that:
Waged perpetual war until in six years he had fought thr five Indians (in relation to the five greatest kingdoms). Then after enlarging his territory he increased his army, the elephant corps up to 60,000 and the cavalry up to 100,000, and ruled in peace for thirty years without bringing a weapon (Majumdar, 252).
Yet many historians believe that his claim is exaggerated. Still, gives a glimpse of his military capabilities.
The Vardhana realm consisted of two distinct types of areas: areas directly under Harsha rule e.g. B. central provinces, Gujarat, Bengal, Kalinga, Rajputana, and the states and kingdoms become feudatories under him including Jalandhar, Kashmir, Nepal, Sindh, Kamarupa (modern-day Assam). Many historians do not find the title justified, as it was never able to bring the entire north under a single command. However, that does not mean that his power was not felt beyond the limits of his direct rule. His writing ran all over northern India. Under his command, King Jalandhar accompanied the Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang to the borders of India. Another time, the King of Kashmir had a tooth relic of the Buddha to be presented to Harsha. The Chinese source suggests that King Kamarupa could not dare arrest Chinese pilgrims in his capital against the will of Harsha.

Art & Education

Harsha was a patron of the arts and education. He himself was an author and wrote three Sanskrit plays, Nagananda, Ratnavali, and Priyadarshika. A quarter of his income went to scholarly tutelage. Hiuen Tsang describes the famous University of Nalanda at the zenith. Harsha's reign was very lively. He described how the towers of the pavilion's regularly landscaped woods, temple seemed to be "floating above the mist in the sky" that from their cells the monks could "witness the birth of winds and clouds".
The pilgrims say:
An azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-grown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the beautiful Kanaka hang here and there, and outside clusters of trees mango offer the residents their thick and protective shade (Grousset, 158, 159).
In its heyday, Nalanda had around 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The admission process was very strict. Records say there was a rigorous oral exam conducted by gatekeepers, and many used to be rejected. The curriculum included Vedas, Buddhism, Philosophy, Logic, Urban Planning, Medicine, Law, Astronomy, etc.

Nalanda ruins

Society & RELIGION

The caste system was widespread among the Hindus. They were divided into four castes or varna: Brahmana, Vaishya, Kshariyaand Shudrawhich had its own sub-castes among them. The incorruptible, who came down to the lowest level in the hierarchy, led a miserable life. The status of women has declined compared to the Liberal era of earlier times. Satipratha(Widow sacrifice) it was customary, and widow remarriage was not allowed in higher castes.
Harsha was initially a devotee of Shiva but later became a Mahayana Buddhism. However, he was tolerant of other religions. With a view to popularizing and spreading the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, Harsha in Kannauj arranged a large gathering which was presided over by Hiuen Tsang. Hiuen Tsang took many manuscripts to China and translated more than 600 of them from Sanskrit. Another great ceremony was held at Prayag (Allahabad) for 75 days. The images of Buddha, Sun and Siva were venerated, and precious objects and clothing were given away in love. Religious ceremonies were celebrated every five years in the ancient city of Allahabad. Here he held the ceremony of Dana, or giving, which lasted for three months. In doing so, most of the wealth accumulated over the past five years was depleted. Once, he gave up his clothes and jewelry and asked his sister for ordinary clothes to be worn.

Death and legacy

Harsha Reich marked the beginning of feudalism in India. Land received in the villages which the local landlords made powerful. This weakened the empire and led to local feuds. Harsha had to be in constant motion to keep things in order.
Harsha died in AD 647, and the kingdom with him. Harshavardhana's death is not well documented. It is said that he was married to Durgavati and had two sons named Vagyavardhana and Kalyanvardhana. The story goes that they were killed by a minister in his court, even before the death of Harsha himself. Hence, Harsha died without any heirs. As a result, Arjuna, one of the chief ministers, took the thrones. Later in 648 CE, Arjuna was captured and held in an attack by the Tibetan.