What are circular rules

Brandenburg regulation system

Implementation of the new German spelling rules from 1996 i. d. F. from 2006

Annex: Summary of the most important proposals of the German Spelling Council

For dealing with the new German spelling rules, the following provisions apply from the beginning of the 2006/2007 school year - i.e. from August 1, 2006:

  1. The new regulation of the German spelling, as it results from the official regulation of 1996 in the version of 2006, is the binding basis of the teaching in all schools.
  2. The current version of the rules and dictionary (new regulation, as of 2006) is available on the Internet on the homepage www.rechtschreibrat.com under the link “News”.
  3. The existing transition period ends on July 31, 2007; During this period, spellings that have become obsolete due to the new regulation (as of 2006) will not be marked and assessed as errors.
  4. In cases of doubt, dictionaries are used which, according to the publisher's declarations, fully comply with the new regulation (as of 2006).
  5. Entry into force / expiry
    This circular comes into effect on August 1, 2006. At the same time, circular 15/05 of July 21, 2005 (p. 290) is no longer in force.

Annex to circular 10/06 of April 5, 2006

Summary of the most important proposals of the German Spelling Council

The proposals of the Council for German Spelling, decided on at the Prime Minister's Conference on March 30, 2006, concern the areas of hyphenation and aggregation, upper and lower case, punctuation and word division at the end of a line.

1 Separate and combined writing

In the case of separate and combined spelling, the tendency towards combined spelling, which corresponds to the traditions of German, is taken into account. The accent pattern is named as an important criterion: Spelling correlates with (a summarizing) word accent.

The main proposed changes relate to:

a) Spelling of particle + verb

Particles are always written together with verbs. Instead of the formal rule according to which elements such as B. on each other and down are always to be written separately from the following verb, the criterion of a single word accent occurs. If there is a uniform word accent, write it down together, for example: abhacome to adrive upwards, anheggm fall onastacking, querread.

Otherwise, d. H. in adverbial use, write separately, e.g. B .: onachange aright, quer (in bed) liegen, rübackwards eggnpark

b) Spelling of adjective + verb

The main proposed change is that a new, idiomatized overall meaning is generally spelled together. Formal rules, such as the rule according to which adjectives in -ig, -isch and -lich are always to be written separately from the following verb, are omitted. Examples: go idle, get closer, find it difficult (= cause trouble), leave (sb.) Contented (= leave alone), bless you.

In the case of the so-called resultatives (= connections in which the adjective describes a property of the object), it is generally possible to write both together and separately, for example: (a wall) paint blue / paint blue, (onions) cut / cut small, (food) warm up / warm up.

c) Spelling of noun + verb

The Council proposes to expand the list of nouns + verbs in which the first components have largely lost the properties of independent nouns in order to skate, stand upside down and do not, and to classify it accordingly (i.e. to delete the variant to be sorry). Furthermore, double-spelling should be permitted in four transitional cases: pay attention / pay attention, pay attention / pay attention, stop / stop, be moderate / keep moderate.

Otherwise, the rule applies that in combinations of noun + verb the noun is capitalized and separated from the verb (e.g. cycling).

d) Spelling of verb (infinitive) + verb

Connections from verb (infinitive) + verb are always written separately. However, the combination should be made possible in the case of transferred, used connections with a second component or to remain to let (such as in "stay seated at school "," leave the girlfriend standing ") as well as get to know.

e) Writing connections with adjectives as first components

In the case of connections with a simple unflexed adjective as a grading determination, it is possible to write both separately and together, for example: closely related / closely related, seriously ill / seriously ill.

f) Spelling of multi-part anglicisms

The spelling of multi-part anglicisms made up of adjective + noun is linked to the accent pattern: compound writing if the main accent is on the adjective component, separate writing if both components have an accent, e.g. B .: Ms.eestyle, H.ightech, Shootingstar; GOlden Goal, Prifather Banking, Round Table

If both accent patterns are possible, then they can be written separately or together, for example: Big Band / Bigband, H.Ot Pants / HOtpants, Small Talk / Smalltalk

2 Upper and lower case

The proposed changes in the area of ​​upper and lower case are limited to what is systematically necessary (especially with regard to hyphenation and combination) and describe the existing usage more precisely.

The main proposed changes relate to:

a) Individual spellings
  • In order to distinguish between substantive and nonsubstantial use, lower case letters are provided in some cases: adopt, give (versus call his own), to be an enemy to sb versus being an enemy of somebody (he is an enemy to him versus he is my (worst, greatest, worst ...) enemy; also: friend, class, great, not, among others in connection with the verbs be / stay / become;
  • due to the unclear part of speech status:

    Amalgamation of going bankrupt, going bankrupt (versus going bankrupt),
    Upper and lower case for right / right and wrong / wrong in connection with verbs like give, have, do

b) rules
  • Corresponding to the spelling usage, the adjective can be capitalized when combining adjective + noun with a new, idiomatized overall meaning, e.g. E.g. the blue letter (= reminder), the round table (in politics), the bulletin board (= notice board).
  • The writing of connections with technical language or terminological character depends on the use in the respective area, e.g. For example: first aid (in the event of an accident), the red card (in sports), the major district town; rare earths, the iron lung.
  • The wish for a "polite" capitalization of the pronoun Du and the associated cases in letters is taken into account by allowing capitalization.

    In other areas (pronouns / numerals) no solution seemed possible within the given framework that would have generated less variation, so that suggestions for change were dispensed with.

3 Punctuation

With regard to punctuation, the Council's proposal aims to make changes in the area of ​​commas in order to ensure clear understanding of the text.

The main proposed changes relate to:

a) Commas for separate sentences that are connected with “and”, “or” etc.

The Council's proposal brings with it one major change: the restriction to “independent” sentences. As a result, in sentences like "It was not uncommon for him to visit her () and for them to sit together late into the night when she was in a good mood." (Official rules 2004, § 73) a comma after "visited" is no longer permitted.

b) Comma for infinitive groups

The Council basically confirms the regulation of the spelling reform, according to which infinitive groups that depend on a correlate or reference word are separated by commas (e.g .: Anna has never regretted having completed this training). However, he suggests leaving this comma free for a mere infinitive (e.g .: Thomas didn't think of going). In addition, he advocates a mandatory comma for infinitive groups that are introduced with "around", "without", "instead of", "instead of", "except" or "as" (e.g .: She opened the window to let in some fresh air.) or depend on a noun and include more than the mere infinitive (e.g .: He was surprised by the night watchman while trying to break into the safe.).

4 Word separation at the end of the line

For the area of ​​word separation at the end of a line, the Council recommends only one change on the surface: the separation of single vowels at the beginning and end of a word should be excluded in principle (not: E-sel, Feiera-bend, Bi-omüll; previously not permitted: Klei- e).

In addition, he advocates a restructuring of the rules to make it clearer that hyphenation is about meaningful hyphenation of a complex whole word. According to this, the separation according to word components should first (e.g. full-end, Program) and then the separation inside words (e.g. Farmer, roast) being represented. These rules also apply to foreign words; Where the expected knowledge of the word parts of foreign words should end cannot be clarified at the rule level.