Why is RCB called the Chokers

Austrian dictionary (37th edition, 1990)

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Published on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Education and the Arts. 37th, revised edition. Compared to the previous one (36th, 1985), the new edition appears in a significantly expanded and partly revised form.

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Description:

Published on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Education and the Arts. 37th, revised edition. Compared to the previous one (36th, 1985), the new edition appears in a significantly expanded and partly revised form.

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Available formats

As PDF, TXT download or read it online on Scribd
0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 people voted)
787 views 502 pages

Description:

Published on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Education and the Arts. 37th, revised edition. Compared to the previous one (36th, 1985), the new edition appears in a significantly expanded and partly revised form.

Copyright:

Available formats

As PDF, TXT download or read it online on Scribd

EDITION (1990)

The new edition appears in comparison to the previous one (36th, 1985) in be
Significantly expanded and partly reworked form.

1. The introductory part
In the introductory part, several sections have been redesigned or over
at all new. This concerns:
Foreword (redesigned);
Identification of the validity and use of keywords (newly added);
Principles of German spelling (redesigned);
Grammatical and linguistic terms (the new
Curricula adapted);
Verbs (extended);
Use and pronunciation of foreign language proper names - foreign alphabets
(new added);
Postal addresses (extended);
Currencies (newly added);
Units of measure (extended);
To use the dictionary (redesigned).

2. About spelling
As in previous editions, the Austrian dictionary gives
two allowed spellings. This is especially the case
if two different writing uses are taken into account (e.g.
so that / so that); if to an existing "difficult" spelling a
reasonable alternative can be offered (e.g. disregard / disregard
careful, Vit \ amin, Vi \ ta \ min); if it is to be the Austrian pronunciation
must be taken into account (e.g. chicks / chicks). Even with some dialect
coined words and some foreign words, the actual Ge
usage accordingly, two spellings listed (e.g. Hendel / Hendl,
Ghetto / ghetto).
In this sense, a few more cases of freedom of choice are new in the 37th edition
added. These include the keywords and below
Areas to pay special attention to.
a) Single words and phrases
fear / make fear - ready + verb: together or separately -
Third / Third World - three quarters / three quarters of an hour / three quarters of an hour -
der, die single / individual (= individual) - first, second / first, second
World War - floor: genitive and plural -ß- and -ss- thank god / God be
Thanks - God the Father / God the Father - uppercase, lowercase letters: together or ge
separates - household / household - hundreds / hundreds - conical washers / Ke
gel discs - standing upside down / standing upside down - writing sick, healthy: together
or separately - pickling meat, pickling: -ck- or -k- test drive / iYobe
drive - point, blow / point, blow (8 o'clock) - y up / up, 'down /' down
and the like - Russians / soot, Russes / soot, sooty / sooty - locks / locks -
Schößel / Schössel - push / push - slav / slave - ram / ram - dew
send / thousands - exuberant / exuberant - quarter / quarter (clock
time) - God knows / God knows - sausage / sausage (= does not matter) - diligence / diligence - too
Hands / at hand.

b) Certain areas of spelling


Words on -y from English (e.g. baby) in the plural: - ys / -ies;
Word separation at the end of the line, especially with foreign words, e.g. B. Magnet / Mag
net; with forward vowel: he \ rauf / her \ auf;
Apostrophe before genitive-s in names under certain conditions.

Some areas of optional spelling were included in previous editions of the


Austrian dictionary contain:
Word separation in cases such as \ rauf / dar \ auf, hi \ no / hinlein, wolrin / worlin,
Eilnander / Einlander, braked / brazedlte;
Words on - ss / -ß from English, e.g. B. Stewardess / Stewardess.

3. The scope and design


The word inventory of the Austrian dictionary is like this due to new words
as through words from different parts of Austria and from South Tyrol
significantly expanded and updated as well as in many cases through improved vocabulary
and examples have been enriched. Numerous keywords are more precise
as previously characterized according to language and style level. What not from
is clearly marked, is allowed as a standard for Austria as before
be viewed linguistically. On the principles of the design of the words
book see the foreword, p. 9 ff.

Explanation of symbols and list of abbreviations can be found on the


inside back of the cover.
AUSTRIAN
DICTIONARY
AUSTRIAN

DICTIONARY
ISSUED ON ORDER
OF
FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR EDUCATION AND THE ARTS

37th, revised edition

ÖBV PEDAGOGICAL PUBLISHER


VIENNA
SCHOOLBOOK PUBLISHER YOUTH & PEOPLE
VIENNA
With the decision of the Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Sport dated February 9th
1989, ZI. 25.383 / 17 - 1/9/88, according to §14 paragraph 2 and 5 of the School Education Act,
Federal Law Gazette No. 472/86, and according to the current curricula as for the sub
reference use at secondary schools for the 1st to 4th grade as well as general education
Higher schools suitable for the 1st to 8th grade in the subject of German
explained.

School book number: 1188

Austrian dictionary

ÖBV Pedagogical Publishing House, Vienna

37th edition, reprinted 1995


All prints of the 37th edition can be in
Lessons used side by side
become.

Editorial staff:
Dictionary agency of the Austrian federal publisher
with the participation of a commission of experts

Co-editor:
Honorary Professor Dr. Otto Back
Head of Section i. R. Dr. Erich Benedikt
University professor Dr. Maria Hornung
High school supervisor Professor Ernst Pacolt

37th edition, reprint 1995 (37.06)

© Österreichischer Bundesverlag Gesellschaft m. B. H., Vienna 1990


© ÖBV Pädagogischer Verlag GmbH, Vienna 1993
All rights reserved
Any kind of reproduction, even in part, is prohibited by law
Set: Set Repro Zentrum Korneuburg Ges. M. B. H., 2100 Korneuburg
Paper: wood-free offset
Printing: Offset printing Carl Ueberreuter Druckerei Ges. M. B. H.
ISBN 3-215-07050-2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

FOREWORD ................................................. ........................................ 9
GENERAL PART
1 Identification of the validity and use of keywords ......... 13
1.1 Language layers: standard language, colloquial language, dialect __ 13
1.2 Spatial distribution and linguistic affiliation of Wör
tern ................................................. .............................., ................... ... 15
1.3 Stylistic usability of expressions ................................... 16
1.4 Outdated words or things ............................................. ................ 18
1.5 Specialized words .............................................. ..................... 18
2 Principles of German spelling ................................... 19
REGULATORY PART
3 Upper and lower case ............................................. ................ 25
3.1 Capitalization ................................................ ...................... 25
With a capital first letter you write: All nouns (nouns) 25
- Nominal (noun) used words 25 - The first word of a
Sentence, a direct speech, in headings and the like and after an ending
point 26 - pronouns of salutation 27 - adjectives, participles and nouns
materials in proper names, titles, fixed terms, etc. 27 - Derivatives
on -er in geographical terms 28
3.2 Lower case ................................................ ................................. 28
With a lowercase letter you write: All words, except
Nouns and Nominalizations (Nouns and Nouns) 28
- After a semicolon 29 - After a call or question mark
when the preceding and following the punctuation mark is a meaningful one
ness forms 29
3.3 Special cases ................................................ ......................................... 30
The abbreviated “von” 30 - “’ s ”for“ it ”or“ that ”30 - after a dop
pelpunkt 30 - after a call or question mark 30 - opposite
lungs 30
3.4 Abbreviations and individual letters ............................................ 32
4 Separate and combined writing ............................................. 33
4.1 Verbs .................................... 33
4.2 Nouns (nouns) and other parts of speech ................................. 34
4.3 Noun (noun) and verb as one concept ................................. 35
4.4 Street names and geographical names ....................................... 35
5 s notation .............................................. ........................................ 37
5.1 The s-spelling in Antiqua (Latin printing and writing
font) ................................................ ................................................ 37
5.2 The s-writing in Fraktur and Kurrent script ............................ 39

5
page

6 Meeting of three identical consonant letters in


Word compositions ................................................. ................ 41
7 Word separation ................................................ ...................................... 42
7.1 General ................................................ ........................................ 42
7.2 Separating according to language syllables ............................................. ......... 42
7.3 Separating according to spoken syllables ............................................. ......... 44
8 Punctuation ................................................ .................................. 47
8.1 The point ............................................... ............................................. 47
8.2 The question mark ............................................... ................................. 48
8.3 The callsign ............................................... .................................... 48
8.4 The comma ............................................... ........................................ 49
The comma in special cases 49 - The comma in the simple
Sentence 50 - The comma in the compound sentence 52 - ellipsis
sentences 53 - word groups 53 - participle groups 53 - pure infinitives
and infinitive groups 53 - The comma next to the word "please" 55 - The by
strike before “and” and before “or” 55 - The comma in connection with ande
ren punctuation marks 56 - The comma as a substitute for other punctuation marks 56

8.5 The semicolon ............................................... .................................. 56


8.6 The colon ............................................... .................................. 57
8.7 The quotation marks ............................................... ....................... 57
8.8 Round and square brackets ............................................. ............... 59
8.9 The apostrophe (the ellipsis) ........................................ 60
8.10 The hyphen ............................................... ................................... 62
8.11 The dash ............................................... ............................ 65
8.12 The ellipses ............................................... ....................... 66
8.13 Line and line line ............................... 66
8.14 The slash ............................................... .................................. 67
8.15 The Trema ............................................... .......................................... 68
9 Numbers and Roman numerals ............................................. ...... 69

ATTACHMENT
10 Grammatical and linguistic terms .. 73
11 Verbs ................................................ ................................................ 84
11.1 On the use and writing of some forms of verbs ............. 84
11.2 The root forms of strong and irregular verbs .. 87
12 Our print and cursive scripts ............................................ ... 96
13 Use and pronunciation of proper names in foreign languages ​​-
foreign alphabets ................................................ ............................... 97
13.1 Foreign language or German form of the proper name .............. 97

6
page

13.2 Spelling of foreign language words (foreign alphabets) ............ 97


Greek alphabet 98 - Russian 99 - Serbo-Croatian 100 - An
other languages ​​100
13.3 Pronunciation of foreign language words (Latin alphabet) ....... 101
French 101 - Italian 101 - Dutch 102 - Pol
nisch 102 - Russian 102 - Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, Burgenland
Disch-Croatian 102 - Spanish 103 - Czech and Slovak 103
. - Turkish 103 - Hungarian 103
14 International phonetic transcription ............................................... .................. 104
15 Postal addresses (addresses) ............................................. ................ 106
16 Vehicle registration number ................................................ ............... 108
16.1 For vehicles in international traffic ..................................... 108
16.2 Diplomatic license plates ........................................ 110
16.3 Austrian vehicle registration numbers until December 31, 1989. 110
16.4 Austrian vehicle registration numbers from January 1, 1990 111
17 Spelling Alphabets ................................................ ........................ 113
18 Austrian academic degrees .............................................. 114
19 Currencies ................................................ ......................................... 116
20 units of measurement ................................................ ...................................... 118
20.1 The most common dimensions and weights (basic units) ......... 118
20.2 Most common multiples and parts of units of measurement .................. 119
21 Chemical elements ............................................... ........................... 120
22 Paper Sizes ................................................ .................................... 122

ON THE USE OF THE LIST OF TERMS ................... 123


The order of the keywords .............................................. .......... 123
Grammatical information for the individual parts of speech .............. 124
Noun (noun) 124 - verb 125 - adjective 125 - preposition 125
- Other information 125
Word separation ................................................. ..................................... 126
Pronunciation and intonation ............................................... .................. 126
Validity and use ............................................... ....................... 127

LIST OF WORDS ................................................. .................. 129

Notes on the present 37th edition - see front inside pages of the Ein
bands.
Explanation of symbols and list of abbreviations - see back inside
of the cover.
7
The editors and the publishers ask everyone
Suggestions and suggestions that the Öster
rich dictionary concern the following
Send address:
ÖBV educational publisher
Dictionary site
Schwarzenbergstrasse 5
A-1015 Vienna
FOREWORD

After four decades of existence, the Austrian dictionary


(ÖWB) can already look back on a considerable tradition. Its forerunner that
"Rules for German spelling and dictionary", in the old
The first form, going back to 1879, had been based on simple word lists without an er
clarifications limited. (At that time, in different parts of the German
spelling dictionaries.) The ÖWB was in the foreword
for the 1st edition in 1951 as a “dictionary of good, correct German
Common language "characterized. Of course, nothing has changed about that
changes. Also its job to be the basis of spelling in schools and
To hold offices in Austria has remained immovable. It was
designed according to pedagogical principles and is more independent as a makeshift
Work suitable for pupils from about the fifth grade onwards. The aspired
The goal of being a book for life is the ÖWB in its current edition
Hopefully a step closer to the 37th edition.
Already the 35th edition in 1979 had a realignment and a respectable occupation
This is how the current 37th presents itself
was again in a significantly expanded form. Your vocabulary part is substantial
more extensive than that of the previous edition.
*

The ÖWB has several goals:


It is a dictionary of the German standard language in its Austrian
Expression, which in addition to the general vocabulary preferably also includes the
Subject areas household, school, craft, trade, economy, technology, games
and sport including foreign words and modern technical terms be
considered.
Special attention is paid to the life of Austria in the present and in the present
history, in the state and in the cultural field, especially in the rural area
chen living and working group. Some of it is also reflected in the way we deal with it
linguistic and dialect expressions recorded by the ÖWB.
In its vocabulary part, the ÖWB contains information on orthography, Aus
language, grammar, stylistic use of words (see the detailed
Representation in section 1.3, p. 16 ff.), Word meaning and idiomatic wen
fertilize.
In its introductory part (pp. 9-127) the ÖWB offers both orthographic and
grammatical information as well as various other information that hof
actually help make it a useful reference work for white too
to make more circles, for example in media work and book printing.
The fact that - apart from the dialects and the colloquial speech
che - the standard German language in Austria in many respects from
9
Preface

the so-called common German language and its special characteristics


gen in the various other sub-areas of the German-speaking area un
differs, is known to the experts, but also falls to most language
users on. With eight of its federal states, Austria has a share in the Be
peculiarities that the Baiern tribe has developed on its territory.
The so-called Bavarian-Austrian passwords include:
aperitif for “snow-free”, carnival for “carnival”, toll for “(customs) fee”, smoke
catch for "chimney". In the state of Vorarlberg, our national territory encompasses the
Area of ​​the Alemannic tribal vernacular about what is also in stan
in standard language expressions. Despite it being different in many ways
Vorarlberg also has similar word sets in that specifically Austria
chischen vocabulary share, which is due to the old political special position
Austria has developed on the edge of the German-speaking area.
Words like snack for a "snack in the morning or afternoon",
Print type for "form" or the now outdated word correspondence
card for “postcard” did not stop at the Arlberg border
but z. B. hardly understood in neighboring Bavaria. Furthermore, Öster
rich also in common peculiarities of the whole German-speaking
South (e.g. South German Saturday versus North German Saturday). These
Splitting into multiple terms in the written German vocabulary is for
the German language is characteristic and makes teaching the
Germans as a foreign language.
On the other hand, there are a number of words whose meaning in Austria
differs from that in Germany; z. B. corresponds to the Austrian armchair
a chair in Germany, but an Austrian chair for the Germans
Fauteuil, the cup of the Germans a cup of the Austrians, and run
in Austria only a synonym for running, in Germany also for walking
walk.
There are two main areas in which the peculiarities of Austria
chischen vocabulary become clearly evident: the one in the austrian-un
Garischen monarchy developed Austrian official language and the by
the Viennese cuisine under the influence of several foreign neighboring languages ​​and
-cultures developed Austrian kitchen language. Belong to the first group
Renew expressions such as redemption, value, printed matter, payment slip, custody, abandonment
property, breach ("loss"). The second group includes B. Beiried, Beuschel,
Buchtel, Indian, cauliflower, Kolatsche, pancake, roaster, Tatschkerl.
It goes without saying that it is the author of the Austrian words
make the task of using the Austrian special vocabulary to a large extent
to grasp. The inclusion of certain dialect expressions right
is made possible by the characterization of certain terms of the
Austrian folk culture. While z. B. in other areas of the German
In the language area unknown word der Heurige for "Buschenschank" in the
Standard language has found its way into, for example, with drahn ("sich die Nacht
exuberant pleasure through ”) because of the dialectal sound not the
Case. However, the word cannot be found simply by literally dre
hen play. Its frequent use in texts leaves it in the word
appear useful.
10
Preface

It happens that some words, even though they are through the shape of a sound or word
Appear dialect, have become technical terms, so to speak, and in Öster
usually does not get rich by any other expression of the standard language
be set; this applies e.g. B. for Hömdlbauer or for Kranzljungfer.
According to its origin, the German idiom also belongs in South Tyrol
to Austrian German. South Tyrolean specialties like Saltner for
"Weinhüter" or Torkel for "Weinpresse" are identified as such with "(SüdT)"
indicates.
For some verbs, the Austrian use of the auxiliary verb will be for
the perfect formation registered: I sat (on the other hand in Germany before
weighing I sat).
Certain words in the standard German language are different in Austria
more pronounced than in Germany. For example, the ÖWB has to record: Briefly
vowel z. B. in doctor, earth, cough; Long vowel z. B. in Chef \ Most, avenge. Some
Foreign words of French origin, for example those that end in -ge,
are - in contrast to Germany - spoken without the final -e
chen, z. B. embarrassment, garage, charge. Words like chemistry, china, surgeon speaks
in Austria with [k-], in Germany with [ch-] or [sch-]. Also with regard to
Austrian peculiarities must be taken into account with regard to the emphasis: So
the word mathematics in Austria has the tone on the penultimate syllable, in
Germany mostly on the last, coffee and platinum are on in Austria
the last syllable, in Germany mostly stressed on the first.
It was difficult for the authors to refrain from citing Vor
names and geographical names. But the names of the
Austrian federal states and the provincial capitals, some Austrian
cal place names that have pronunciation problems (e.g. Villach, Lienz), then
the names of some Austrian landmarks; also the names of the earth
parts, most of the states of Europe and many peoples.
The ÖWB will probably - like any native language dictionary - be closed
mostly used to look up spelling. As is well known
the spelling in Austria is none other than the common Ortho
graph of all German-speaking countries based on the reform of the Jah
res 1901. In the definition at that time, some marginal areas were the right
spelling was left out. So in the aftermath certain could also be low
docile divergences between different spelling dictionaries are best
stay or develop. As far as this is related to edge areas
it is not an evil, but can, on the contrary, lead to positive development
initiate German orthography.
Where the ÖWB offers spellings that differ from those of other spellings
books differ, it records both forms (e.g. so that next to so
that) - because a spelling in the sense of non-Austrian dictionaries
“Right” should not be judged as “wrong” on the basis of the ÖWB.
Orthographic alternative offers in the ÖWB can be based on different
Considerations are based on:
- Reproduction of particularities of the Austrian pronunciation, for example
Chicks (short ü) versus chicks (long ü). Such cases are rare.
- Defusing inappropriateness due to too rigid and heavy
11
Preface

transparent spelling rules in marginal areas. Hence z. B. not


only Päd \ ago \ ge, but also Pä \ da \ go \ ge; not only in relation, but also in
Reference.
- Consideration of the historically given coexistence of two
Spellings for certain words. Such is found, inter alia. in the field of
Separate and combined writing, e.g. B. hurt next to hurt. The alterna
tive offer also brings a reduction in the possibility of errors.
Incidentally, there are a few double forms in the area of ​​grammar, see above
about gender, z. B. the yoghurt (also: die or der yoghurt); the virus (also:
the virus); the gnome, the gnome, the gnomes (also: the gnome, the gnomes).
*

The Austrian dictionary is a collaborative effort that constantly knows


must be carried out. All of the many who came up with inquiries, advice, Kri
tics and information, be it as experts or as informants
Thanks go to the editors and the authors. They hope that the
users of this work will gladly and successfully use this work. It should follow the tradi
Austrian German, which is rich in information, will secure the space that is available to him within
of the German-speaking area as a whole.

12
GENERAL PART

1 IDENTIFICATION OF VALIDITY AND USE OF THE


KEYWORDS

In order to be completely clear about the validity and use of a word, ge
it is not enough to consider its pronunciation, spelling and grammatical determination
to know pieces. You also have to know whether the word in question is the
Standard language ("written language", the "standard German"), the colloquial speech
che or belongs to a dialect; whether it is in upscale style or vice versa
rather fits in a confidential, casual, conversational tone; whether it may be in joke
ten or z. B. is to be expected in disparaging utterances; and
such a thing more. In this sense, the ÖWB tries to provide users with ent
Meaningful labeling that is added to certain words, references to
to give their usability in different situations and types of text. It
It is in the nature of things that such references are often only approximate
ability to show and - if only for the sake of the necessary brevity -
some aspects have to be disregarded.

1.1 Language layers: standard language, colloquial language, dialect


Of the standard language expressions not specially marked who
in the ÖWB the colloquial and the dialect by special
Identification ("ugs.", "Mda.") Lifted.
The standard language is that form of German that is used throughout German
Language area is used more or less uniformly; this uniform
However, this applies more to written German (“written language”) than to
the spoken. As in other parts of the German-speaking area there is
In Austria too, it has its own version of the standard German language. In
the standard language is most of what is written or ge in German
is printed. Orally, the standard language is used when the Ge
spoke based on a written text, such as the
Read out; in addition, quite generally on formal occasions, in speeches,
Lectures, sermons, news broadcasts.
The dialects (or dialects) are each a specific smaller Ge
offers its own expressions of German. In Austria and southern Germany
dialect is the first and actual mother tongue for many people.
They are used especially at home and in closer social circles
circle.
Dialect was and is also used for poetry; so z. B. in the text of Upper Austria
national anthem by Franz Stelzhamer: Hoamatländ, Hoamatländ, i hä (n) dih so
gladly uriar a child be Muada, a dog his master (...).

13
Identification of the validity and use of the keywords

In rural areas in particular, the language class “dialect” is to be broken down into Grund


Mundarten (basic dialects) with narrow and traffic dialects (traffic dialects) with
wider distribution area. Often you can find both in the same place: the basic dialect z. B.
rather with farmers and older people, the traffic dialect more with workers and the
younger generation. In the opening words of Stelzhamer Ge
dense, the form i hä (n) (= "I have") belongs to a basic dialect; the corresponding
traffic dialect would be i hab. Another example pair would be: it messes - you
(or it) kummts (= "you are coming").
A word is marked as dialect without further specifying it
assigns to a certain area of ​​Austria, it can be assumed that
that the expression in question is used throughout the Bavarian-Austrian dialect
area of ​​Austria is common, z. B. ällerweil, bacherlwärm, Filzpätschen, gachf
Liegerstatt, Madl, Ratz, stad. (See also p. 15, 1.2.1.)
Colloquial language is called a language layer between the standard language
and dialect lies. This applies to both the outer shape of many words and
generally for occasions when colloquial language is used.
Regarding the word forms: The example forms mentioned above (for “I have”, “you
comes ”) in colloquial language large parts of Austria would read: I have or I
got it, you're coming. Here and in many cases are slang forms as a result of a
mutual convergence between standard language and dialect form
to understand. Examples of slang words of this kind: a bit, eh, Mucken,
Reindl, ’down.
Colloquial language is used when standard language is too stiff and vernacular
would be too confidential. It has in common with the dialect that it is used much more often
occurs orally than in writing - for example in letters held in a family way or
with verbatim rendering of direct speech. On the other hand, it is colloquial
che is spoken relatively uniformly in large parts of the country. That turns them against
over the dialects (also the vernaculars) to a more neutral, white
the reaching means of communication. (Some slang words like
broken, get, are even peculiar to the entire German-speaking area.)
There is a difference in the use of vernacular and colloquial language between the
West and east of Austria insofar as in western Austria the native
Dialect enjoys a higher social standing than in the Eastern one. This is the case in Tyrol, for example
dialect language can also be heard on some occasions where z. B. in
Lower Austria is more of a colloquial language.
The individual language layers, i.e. standard language - colloquial language - traffic
mundart - basic dialect, are not sharply demarcated from one another, and there are twi
give them certain transitional forms. In addition, one often “switches” when speaking depending on the person
Situation, topic and mood from one language class or level to another
and back again.
Most Austrians, unless they use dialect, talk in everyday life
Colloquial language (not standard language). Compared with the standard language
che (the "speaking according to the script") colloquial language seems less high-tract
trendy, less demanding, rather simple, familiar and informal.
Many expressions can also be assigned to it, which - without necessarily ge
to be colored - to have that simpler, more familiar use value, e.g. B. yourself
caught, crack, cycle, anyway; sometimes it is a question of words that stood opposite

14
Identification of the validity and use of the keywords

Standard language expression appears as "unofficial" simplifications, such as Fi


nanzer, crime thriller, metalworker (trade unionist), smoker (in the sense of smoking wagon, rough
cherabteil), retirees (retirees).
It depends on the casual, informal nature of the use of the um
common language together that many common language expressions at the same time
also have stylistic features that are indicated in the ÖWB by the Kenn
drawing “sloppy” (“sal”) is pointed out (e.g. fadize, lousy). (See p. 16 ff.,
1.3.) A sharp mutual demarcation is often impossible; accordingly
many words are marked “inf. sal ". Quite a few sociable
Linguistic words are stylistically as pejorative ("abw.", e.g. revolutionary) or
referred to as joking ("scherzh", e.g. straw widow). (See p. 16 ff., 1.3.) That
but colloquial expressions can also be stylistically neutral,
show examples like financiers, schupfen, eh, anyway.

1.2 Spatial distribution and linguistic affiliation of


Words
1.2.1 Spatial distribution
Words that are mainly found in a certain part of Austria,
are designated accordingly, e.g. B. Carnival (T, V = in Tirol, Vorarlberg), in
nert (V), Strankerl (K = Carinthia), Ludler (St = Styria); also z. B.
Saltner (SüdT = South Tyrol).
The centuries-long position of Vienna as the capital of the state has the consequence
that many originally Viennese expressions also appear in the linguistic usage
which parts of Austria have found entrance. Works in the same way
the charisma of Vienna in administration, traffic, media and literature.
If, as a result, the ÖWB contains many “Viennese” expressions, it cannot
Already on one - not intended by the authors and often only apparent - “Vienna
loadigkeit ”of the dictionary.
The markings point to larger areas of distribution within Austria
mentions as "West Austrian" or as "East Austrian": Metzger (western
east.), butcher (east east.)
All of these labels mostly, but not necessarily, go hand in hand
with a designation as "colloquial" or "dialect". (See p. 13 ff., 1.1.)
The designation "scenic" ("landsch.") Is used when a
Word without being pronounced dialect or colloquial, in ver
different, but not in all parts of Austria, z. B. Kaluppe, Kaser.

1.2.2 Linguistic affiliation


Words that are specifically related to "Binnendeutsch", that is to say the language usage
Germany who belong to are marked with an asterisk (*). These include
Expressions that Austrians only use in literature or television, in Güterver
encounters sweeping and tourism, such as B. string, sit, flatten, the
Quark; but then also those that are already in Austrian use

15
Identification of the validity and use of the keywords

are penetrated, such as B. cream, tomato, but without the Easter in large parts
to have suppressed Reich's native word (Obers, Paradeiser). Lots of them
Words also belong to the colloquial language (see p. 13 ff., 1.1): Klamauk,
blow, whine, puff.
For foreign language expressions, e.g. B. Latin, French, Italian
English, the origin is only noted if it comes from more than
consist of only one word, e.g. B. ad hoc, persona non grata; French fries, vis-a-
vis; on balance; Public Relations, UNO (United A / ations Organization).

15 Stylistic usability of expressions


The stylistic value of an expression often results only from the text
or context of the situation (e.g. a nice present, meant ironically).
With many words, however, a certain stylistic shadowing is firmly ver
bound. In such cases the ÖWB tries, at least some particularly
to capture important style values ​​by appropriate labeling and by
to separate the “normal cases”, the stylistically neutral, unmarked words
Zen. These labels are: "elevated" (walk), "casual" (sal.), "Joking"
(jokingly), “derogatory” (deviating), “contemptuous” (scornful), “coarse”. To do this in the following
the details.
The marking of some words as "elevated" means that such
According to the feeling of many language participants, expressions, as it were, “about” one
Stylistically neutral, simple representation that are “raised”.
Of course, that doesn't mean that it insulates "better", "more correct" or "nicer" everywhere.
would be as unmarked words. Here, as elsewhere, it applies that every expression is only
appropriately within the environment belonging to it (situation, intention, type of text ...)
can be.
In addition, it should be noted that "lifted" is a wide and in
is again divided into various shading areas. He around
summarizes what can be called "chosen" or even "high-pitched" expression
could characterize, as well as words that one a "solemn" or "poem
rischen “style level would assign. Examples: Aar, venture out, do enough,
Gutter, forever, the country, complain, rigid, atone. Some of these expressions
serve to mitigate, conceal, a fact that is perceived as negative,
to describe euphemistically, e.g. B. de-soulled, the remains, the ver
bleached. With some words it is their ancient character that they call "ge
lifted "appears, z. B. fainthearted, missives.
So there is a certain connection between the stylistic designation
as “upscale” and the time mark as “out of date” (t) - see p. 18, 1.4; z. B .:
from then on, dermally.
If you use an “upscale” term in a context in which
if his level of style does not fit into it, this can often be an (intended
or trigger unintended) joking effects; that is why such
Expressions are also used in an ironic or self-deprecating sense.
Examples: I eat (instead of: I eat); my husband (instead of: my husband).
16
Identification of the validity and use of the keywords

In a certain way the counterpart to the "upscale" expressions are those


which the ÖWB describes as "casual". They are felt to be “below” the style
levels more neutral, stylistically unmarked, in every situation (or everyone
opposite) usable idiom. The area of ​​the "Saloppen"
- which again includes manifold nuances - could also be paraphrased
as an occasionally accentuated, intentionally casual, relaxed attitude
of carefree letting go, which is expressed in linguistic expression
recognize there. Examples: fool, rubber paragraph, go wrong, veil
sticky, crazy idea, obsessed with something, devilish, pointless.
Such an expression is in itself nothing negative, but has its un
dispensable function in the linguistic behavior of people and confers
style, often immediacy, warmth and color. It's just - in your own inter
eat - important to know in which situations and contexts of meaning
as well as to whom “casual” expressions are appropriate and when they are not
are.
As already mentioned (p. 13 ff., 1.1), there is a close, although not mandatory relationship
hang between the stylistic designation “casual” and the designation “um
common language ". Both have the informal thing in common.

Within the range of stylistic markings is the "Saloppe",


Carefree on the one hand the "joking", on the other hand the »devaluing
the “neighboring (and not sharply delimited from either).