What makes a poem political

must assume that political poems want to make a difference. That's why she plays appellative function language plays a dominant role, and in addition to the aesthetic aspects, it is above all the Communication situation to consider closely: the relationships between the historical location, the intention of the author in choosing the subject (themes) and the desired effect can be opened up through specific questions: According to the so-called Lasswell formula (named after the political scientist Lasswell), the following applies: "A convenient way to describe an act of communication is to answer the following questions: Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect? ​​" This means in detail:

productionplantreception
(external text factors)(text-immanent factors)(external text factors)
Whosays whatin which channelto whomwith what effect
Author, broadcasterMessage, statement Channel, mediumRecipient, addressee Reception history
speakerobjectshapereadereffect

Questions to political poems:

  • Who is the speaker and who is the intended addressee?
  • What historical and political situation are the speaker and addressee in?
  • Which social and political situation does the poem explicitly or implicitly refer to?
  • In what way and where does the speaker address the readers?
  • What is the subject of the poem?
  • What actual or supposed attitude does the speaker have on the topic?
  • What attitude is required or aimed for in the current reader?
  • Which means of expression and design does the author use? Are there more forms of direct speaking (calling, criticizing, etc.) or indirect saying (e.g. through types of irony, satire, caricature).

Observation grid for shape interpretation

Speech situation, intention, effect:

  • Salutation, we-form, first-person form, role poem
  • Awakening or strengthening of feelings
  • Call for criticism and action (direct or indirect)
  • Attack, ridicule, satire, irony

Language and sound image

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