BITS Pilani has a mechatronics branch

B uni ulm intern. The Ulm University Magazine No. 245 (31st year) May census of arthropods


1 B 1293 uni ulm intern The Ulm University Magazine No. 245 (31st year) May 2001 Census of the arthropods

2 2 Endowed chair for mobile entertainment with high penetration rate Inauguration of the Siemens endowed chair for telecommunications technology and applied information theory. Since the end of 2000, the Department of Telecommunications Technology and Applied Information Theory has existed at Ulm University. It is based on the Siemens endowed chair of the same name. The chair holder and department head is Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Bossert, previously professor in the information technology department. The department was officially inaugurated on May 9th. Siemens will fund the chair with around four million DM in ten years' time. Bossert presented the structure and training goals, Werner Korte, Senior Vice President at Siemens, gave a lecture on "innovative trends in mobile communications". A research center for mobile telecommunications has long since developed on the Obere Eselsberg in Ulm. This research takes place in two departments of the university - previously there was already the IT department headed by Prof. Lindner - as well as in an industrial periphery (on May 9, the endowed chair of telecommunications technology and applied information theory was inaugurated (in the foreground from right Chancellor Dr. Dietrich Eberhardt, Vice Rector Prof. Dr. Hermann Schumacher and Willi Böhmer, Südwest Presse).

3 Endowed chair 3 Lehrstück GSM To the cover picture Your eyewear specialist in Söflingen Neue Gasse Ulm-Söflingen Telephone 07 31 / mens, Nokia, AEG Mobile Communications = AMC), who trained in Science Park II on the Obere Eselsberg, the successful run for began here in Ulm digital mobile communications in the D network. At AEG Telefunken, Bossert and Korte were significantly involved in the introduction and since then in the further development. Bossert recalls: We loaded C and D network devices and a radio into a car and drove them into a tunnel. First the C-Netz failed, then the radio, but the D-Netz still worked. Then people knew: digital is better. "Applied information theory", which nowadays translates simply as "mobile phone". - Simple? Mobile communications has never been simple, and each of the new development steps, which has not been lacking over the past decade, has increased its complexity. It is about the changing transmission and reception conditions of cell phones, the limited number of available transmission frequencies and the seemingly limitless growing demand for new cell phones, the superimposition and mutual cancellation of waves, noise and "radio shadows," but that is also the issue about questions The research spectrum of Prof. em. Dr. Werner Funke, formerly head of the Ulm Department of Ecology and Morphology of Animals. Among many other things, his behavioral studies on insects take up a lot of space. The results of the investigations made it possible to clarify elementary questions of biodiversity, i.e. the diversity of organisms and their interactions with one another and with the environment, especially for the forest habitat. To deal with his innovative questions, Funke needed new investigation techniques. He has made significant contributions to method development. His photo-collectors are not only known in the professional world, but are now in use worldwide. Using the light orientation of the insects, these devices serve to catch them and thus a species-specific »census«. On the basis of this inventory, frequency and activity recordings, the Ulm zoologist succeeded in gaining insights into the behavior and life cycles of his target objects and their dependence on the environmental conditions, insights that were previously closed due to the lack of a suitable arsenal of methods. They led him to new ecological models of thought. His long-term studies on insects and other arthropods have established, among other things, their scientifically informative "function" as indicators (bio-indicators) of forest damage. Special surveys looked at the consequences of the use of pesticides and changes in the composition of animal communities on storm thrown areas. Prof. Funke was awarded the prestigious Ernst Jünger Prize 2001 for his diverse and outstanding contributions to entomology. Read more about this on p. 8 ff. (Cover picture: Tree photo-collectors for recording trunk emergence and trunk approach of arthropods and determining the development processes of trunk and crown dwellers; the individual insect species or groups orientate themselves after hatching from the ground different colors and brightness values.) uni ulm internal content Mobile entertainment with high 2 penetration rate New virus killers wanted 7 Ernst Jünger Prize for Prof. Funke 8 From simulation model to control 10 Professional qualification, 12 but secondary qualification Awarded the LEG Prize 13 Attractive in the Obligatory feature of the study plan The time of death is the proven 18 state of brain death The word and inorganic chemistry 23 A cube of knowledge The new building 24 of the library headquarters Calendar of events 31 Personnel 32 uni ulm internal Advertising management: Sabine Kindermann, Wettinerweg 12, Oberelchingen, frequency of publication: eight issues per Year; Edition Publisher: Ulm University Editor: Peter Pietschmann (responsible), Astrid Helble Editor's address: Ulm University, Press Office, Albert-Einstein-Allee 5, Ulm, letter post: Ulm, telephone: (0731) / 2021, fax: rektoramt.uni Publishing and advertising management: Universitätsverlag Ulm GmbH, Bahnhofstrasse 20, Ulm, Internet: de, Post: Postfach 42 04, Ulm Publishing director: Alexander Schraut, Telephone: (0731), Fax: (0731) Telephone: (), Fax :, Advertisement price list: No. 8, valid from January 1st, 1997 Total production: Biberacher Verlagsdruckerei GmbH & Co, Biberach Subscription price DM 6.80 per issue (including shipping costs plus VAT); Retail price DM 7.20 Articles marked with a name do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the publisher or the editorial team. Text contributions can be reprinted free of charge provided the source is acknowledged. The editors ask for specimen copies. ISSN X postal sales no. B 1293 Online edition of the Ulm university magazine uni ulm intern:

4 It used to be that people got a kick out of tiny icons and fancy melodies on their mobile. It used to be. UMTS by Siemens. Giving the world a new mobility. GSM and GPRS have brought the Internet to the mobile phone. UMTS now puts mobility into multimedia. As your UMTS partner, we not only offer complete networks and a full line of products, but also third generation value-added services and applications. Make the user s life simpler, more spontaneous and more exciting and tap into new and lucrative business opportunities. Your customers, both old and new, will be delighted at the host of information services, booking possibilities, e-commerce applications and entertainment offerings you will have in store for you.

5 The university now has two IT / telecommunications technology departments in its engineering faculty. the security, i.e. the reliable identification of the user, the encryption (coding) and decryption (decoding) of signals. In order to create order in the sea of ​​waves of the near-as-if-one-there-and-co., The researchers have to dig deep into their bag of tricks. With soldering iron and field tests nothing can be done here. In this sector, research means simulation on the computer, algorithm-based modeling of the transmission processes that run between the end devices, the cell phones, and the base station. Without close cooperation between theory and practice, research and industrial implementation, nothing works. In this respect, the exemplary cooperation between the electrical engineers at Ulm University and Siemens is simply necessary from the point of view of those involved. The universities as "the extended workbench of industry"? Bossert considers this accusation to be absurd. His subject lives from and for the application. Bossert describes the development as a “lesson”. Introduced and edited, the GSM standard opened the gates to unlimited mobile communication for every cell phone user at the time. That was nice, but not intended in its further consequences. The GSM conventions European GSM standards (Global System for Mobile Communications). Here, in a kind of concerted action by research and development institutions, the most important difficulties were specifically analyzed, targeting the car phone, the (mostly professional) occasional user, talking to one another, from more and more locations, more and more often, but not always. What then came, however, was not just the cell phone mania, was not only the short message (SMS) boom of private and commercial cell phone users (850 million SMS messages are sent in Germany per month), but also an explosion in the number of users , the now tangible internet-enabled cell phone was the perspective of the

6 The Obere Eselsberg in Ulm is a research center in the field of mobile telecommunications. mobile multimedia communication. Saturation limit reached Some specialists had already foreseen that GSM would not be able to cope with this development. "It's like ordering street lighting so that people in their homes can read at their desks," comments Bossert on the introduction of the too narrowly dimensioned Standards that have nonetheless been raised to a high level by researchers and inventors like himself to this day. Sophisticated algorithms that regulate the protocol of global conversations should now improve the service. In order to be able to report on new trends in mobile communication, as happened on the day of the inauguration of the chair, Werner Korte did not need to do extensive research: they take place at Siemens. Whereby "trends" is not quite the right expression: after all, we are not only dealing with interesting trends, but with the establishment of a new standard. "UMTS" is the magic formula: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. Speech-oriented mobile communications have reached the limit of saturation. In Germany the penetration rate - defined as the ratio of the number of users to the total population - is 65%, in Scandinavia even 90%. The future belongs to data-oriented mobile communications, mobile entertainment and wireless Internet access. For this, the data transfer rates have to be increased enormously, from the current 12 kilobits to 1 megabit per second (Mbps). That also means a network revolution. The wireless Internet access should of course be made for a mass market, that is, have penetration rates of more than 50%. Digital modulation The operators of the existing mobile frequencies are faced with the task of increasing the channel capacities with a constant number of available frequencies. This means that two or more users send or receive different signals on one and the same frequency in one and the same range (cell). There are two options for this: Time Division Multiple Access, TDMA, and Code Division Multiple Access, CDMA. In TDMA, the frequency is divided into successive time slots and the various users are each assigned different time slots with interruptions, during which the frequency in question is available to them alone. Use and interruption alternate in such a way without this being noticeable to the individual participant. With CDMA, on the other hand, a special form of digital modulation called spread spectrum, one frequency is used by several at the same time without interruptions. You can think of it as a room in which several people are talking and talking at the same time, but using different languages ​​and each group communicating with one another only understands one language. CDMA ensures a capacity that is at least twice that of TDMA. Capacity is the number of simultaneous users in a cell per megahertz (Mhz). However, code-oriented access requires highly complex signal processing. Here it is particularly important to solve the problem of the interference of the individual "transmitters", for example by means of specific antenna configurations and signal subtractions associated with high computational effort. The new Ulm Department of Telecommunications Technology and Applied Information Theory deals with these tasks in its research projects. uni ulm internally 8 times a year

7 Science / Research 7 New virus killers wanted Cytomegalovirus gene as the key to anti-virus therapy HCMV for short, and transplant doctors fear it: the human (human) cytomegalovirus, a common infectious agent in AIDS patients, in recipients of bone marrow and Organ transplant recipients, a sneaky heap of genetic information. HCMV is the research object of the Ulm virologists under the direction of Prof. Dr. Thomas Mertens. The scientists want to decipher how the genes of the virus work, to gain insight into its pathogenic effects, to understand how the virus can become resistant to antiviral substances, and finally to find new approaches for effective anti-HCVM therapy Find. Acute HCMV infections are currently usually treated with the active ingredient ganciclovir, possibly combined with other preparations (especially foscarnet). Unfortunately, that doesn't always work by a long way. Resistant pathogens often appear, especially after prolonged administration, and therapy fails. Virologists like Mertens know the causes: Ganciclovir is the biochemical imitation of a natural component of genetic information, the activation of which prevents the virus from multiplying further. Ganciclovir is activated by the protein product of a viral gene called UL97. Now it can happen that the genetic punched tape of the virus, its DNA, is changed precisely at the points that describe the structure of this so-called UL97 protein. The enzyme produced according to this misrepresentation, which normally transfers a phosphate, has a different structure than normal; the antiviral agent is no longer activated and no longer works. In the first series of tests, Merten's team was concerned with the question of how UL97 works and how resistance develops. The virologists had reassembled certain critical sections of the UL97 gene and were now using test substances to investigate whether phosphorylation was still taking place in such modified (recombinant) viruses. In this way, they were able to precisely identify various crucial regions of the gene. And vice versa? Assuming a mutated UL97 gene could be repaired - would that be enough to re-sensitize the virus to drugs? It was enough. But what do you continue to do to find completely new starting points for new therapeutics? - Well, one would have to find an active substance that blocks virus division, but does not attack the DNA polymerase of the virus like all previous drugs, Mertens thought. Then at least one might not care about the resistance to the known polymerase inhibitors. UL 97 Genetic opponents - it's easy to say. But to do this one would have to know which genes play a critical role in the virus replication process, would have to know their function and finally be able to inhibit them with drugs in order to intervene in the viral reproduction process, similar to ganciclovir, but elsewhere . So a whole series of questions. Over the past few years, Mertens and his team have published a series of studies with which they had gradually clarified the individual problems of the anti-HCMV drug development. The first question was about a possible alternative key gene. The Ulm researchers actually found one thing: the UL97 gene that sets the genetic brake on the virus' reproduction in motion or, if mutated, deactivates it. The importance of the UL97 tactic is that resistance to the virus is not that easy to achieve here. A UL97 mutation alone is seldom enough to make it resistant. Other genes are apparently also involved, which reduces the likelihood of spontaneous resistance development. In the following time the virologists were actually able to show that it is possible to prevent the virus from multiplying with completely new substances. Now Mertens and his employees would have liked to have gone to the laboratory, pulled a standard test out of their pocket and started testing. Unfortunately, the current analytical methods for detailed in vitro sensitization tests are only suitable to a limited extent because they only allow the analysis of individual virus populations, but not the entire spectrum of pathogens. But that was exactly what mattered. So new tests were needed. They should be quick and easy to implement, highly standardized and as cheap as possible, and they should make it possible to identify the first stages of resistance development, not the mature, resistant virus population. Mertens initially resorted to the technique of flow cytometry, a proven method with which many different cell populations can be determined quantitatively.Host cells that were infected with a reproductive virus population, so the initial consideration, had to be able to be found with this method, as well as cells in which virus replication had come to a standstill under the influence of the drug. In the meantime, thanks mainly to the contributions of team member PD Dr. Detlef Michel, to recognize resistant viruses directly through genetic analysis. The adapted and new methods delivered meaningful results, and the Ulm virologists saw themselves an important step closer to their goal of the alternative anti-HCVM active ingredient. Exactly how this virus killer should be made - a promising drug candidate has already been identified - where it will attack and how it will work will be clarified by the research work in the near future.

8 Soil photoeclectors with translucent collecting boxes for recording the inventory of species of arthropods (insects, spiders, centipedes and millipedes) with development stages living in the soil to determine hatch abundance / activity density (individuals / sqm) and biomass on specifically contaminated areas to assess the effects of environmental toxins on arthropods. Amazing Forms Ernst Jünger Prize for Professor Funke The Ernst Jünger Prize for Entomology was awarded for the sixth time this year. This prize, donated in 1985 by the state of Baden Württemberg in honor of Ernst Jünger, is awarded every three years, always around the time of Ernst Jünger's birthday, to "scientists who have made outstanding work in the field of entomology". The link to entomology not only highlights one of Ernst Jünger's fields of work, in which he found great recognition, but also, in accordance with his intentions, the importance of insect science is brought into public awareness; because they not only make up the vast majority of species diversity on earth, they are also indispensable factors in the ecological structure of our habitats. This year's award went to Prof. em. Dr. Werner Funke, former head of the Department of Ecology and Morphology of Animals at Ulm University. The award ceremony took place on May 3rd, according to the previous tradition, at a ceremony in the castle of Baron Stauffenberg in Wilflingen. In the presence of the widow Ernst Jüngers, who spent the last decades of his life in Wilflingen, as well as previous award winners and numerous guests of honor, the State Secretary in the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport - Prof. Dr. Werner Funke den-württemberg, Rudolf Köberle, the achievements of the award winner, which are evident not only in his scientific work but also in his many years of service as President for the German Society for General and Applied Entomology. In his celebratory speech, the laureate talked about his encounter with Ernst Jünger and about working together with beetles. Ernst Jünger's area of ​​interest, the variety of colors and shapes of the beetles, leads to the variety of their behavior. Funke discovered amazing forms of brood care and symmetrical behavior. But how can a large variety of similar, related species come about and exist side by side in a narrow habitat? The answer is provided by Funke's studies on ecosystem research, the large-scale undertaking to quantitatively record the actual production and the material and energy flows in ecosystems such as the forest or the meadow, from solar radiation to

9 Science / Research 9 Tree-soil photo-ejector to record the inventory of species, hatch abundance, etc. of arthropods in the immediate trunk area.Transparent photo-eclector box from a soil photo-eclector with a catch of a week / sqm, the plants, the herbivores, their predators up to the parasites and finally humus formation. This is infinitely more difficult in the richly structured terrestrial habitats than in bodies of water, for example. With ingenious trapping and collecting methods and devices, it is carefully registered how many animals and how many grams of which species occur at what time and in which place, in the ground, in the leaf litter, on the trunks, in the crowns of the trees, and when or in what stage they move from one whereabouts to another. Funke also finds the answer to our core question: The simultaneous existence of so many different species is made possible by the fact that they neatly divide the resources and the habitat and complement each other when it is used. They all differ in their choice of food, in their whereabouts and, above all, in the times of their activity: at different times of the day and in different seasons. In addition to such fundamental findings, one-off events and their consequences are also recorded, such as the two devastating wind breaks of the past decade. The catch results show excitingly how the re-colonization of the windthrow areas takes place in a certain order of the species. The wood-eating "forest pests" like the "book printer" that collect on the fallen trees are followed by a wave of their natural enemies, which even has a positive effect in the neighboring forest area. The practical forestry consequences met with great interest, especially in the local area of ​​Wilflingen. Following the award, there was a tour of the new Ernst Jünger Museum in Wilflingen, which was very popular. Visitors interested in entomology were also able to take a look at the poet's famous beetle collection. Prof. Dr. Detlef Bückmann Soil photo-collectors with stem wood samples to record the succession of dead wood insects (on a storm throw area near Langenau, Alb-Donau district)

10 10 Science / Research Structure of the motor-generator unit in the sound-insulated drive test bench of the Energy Conversion and Storage Department From the simulation model to the control The University of Ulm at the Hanover Industry Fair At the Hanover Industry Fair, the joint stand of the universities in Baden-Württemberg via the has become a permanent fixture in recent years. This year, too, from April 23 to 28, 2001, one could be seen, with exhibits from Aalen, Karlsruhe, Ravensburg / Weingarten, Stuttgart, Tübingen and of course Ulm. The Department of Energy Conversion and Storage (Prof. Dr. Herbert Kabza) of the University of Ulm presented three exhibits. Wonderbits GbR, a spin-off of the Neuroinformatics department, presented - as it did in April at CeBIT - »tetrixx«, a modular system for the construction and programming of autonomous robots for training and teaching. A Boeing called Golf Ten years ago, almost no chips, today the car is increasingly becoming a rolling computer. In the near future, around a third of the value of a motor vehicle is likely to be determined by that of its electronic components. And how well the autonomous automobile ultimately drives is essentially a question of the software. It not only has to be intelligent, but also robust. With around 3000 operating hours per individual vehicle in the VW Golf, for example, the operating time of a control unit is comparatively short - multiplied by the millions of units, such a part easily covers the total operating time of the control components of a line jet like the Boeing 737. The developers must assume that all errors that can occur also occur during the lifetime of a control unit. Expensive and unpleasant product recalls should be avoided as much as possible, and accidents should be excluded as far as possible. The effort for testing the functions and their reliability is therefore enormous. Since not all error situations can be reproduced in the vehicle, the system consisting of the control unit and vehicle is first simulated and its behavior in the event of errors is pre-tested. In the second step, a test control unit performs the functions developed in the simulation on the vehicle, e.g. in the test bench or in a test vehicle. Only then is the model released for series production. SimControl, a new development from the Department of Energy Conversion and Storage at the University of Ulm, covers part of this development chain by making it possible to transfer the functions that have already been tested in the simulation directly to the test system without the detour via a hand-written program. The system can be adapted to a wide variety of requirements using plug-in cards and can be linked to other systems without any problems. Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Wagener and his working group use their development in a test bench for a hybrid car drive, among other things. Construction kit for robots Autonomous mobile robots are available from teachers and students

11 Science / Research 11 the investigation of conventional and alternative drive systems with regard to longitudinal dynamics, energy consumption and energy management. On the basis of driving cycles, body, engine and storage system data, driving performance, fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and the operating strategy of conventional combustion engines as well as hybrid, fuel cell or electric vehicle structures can be analyzed and optimized. The program package based on commercially available software, product of a working group led by Dipl.-Ing. Christian Körner, is particularly suitable as a tool for the automated design and optimization of drive trains. Battery manager Components of the modular SimControl control unit More reliability and a longer service life are promised by Dipl.-Ing. Peter Seger will be equally popular for a long time. They would be even higher if they weren't too inflexible for the needs of most public educational institutions and too expensive for their coffers. It's good that there is now "tetrixx". The autonomous mobile robot kit from Wonderbits contains a wide range of coordinated mechanical components made of aluminum, special parts such as wheels and gears, motors, sensors and microcontrollers, plus TIDE, a do-it-yourself package for developing the right software. Tetrixx offers teaching institutes an excellent opportunity to improve the quality of their training and to impart interdisciplinary knowledge to trainees in addition to an attractive technology image. A close cooperation with the TCSI - The Cool Science Institute enables a cost-effective calculation, so that tetrixx can be financed even for small budgets. The virtual drawing board FAHRSIM does what its name suggests: it lets virtual cars drive. Not for fun, of course, but for the purpose

12 12 Students SPEECHES AND MESSAGES FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF ULM Volume 1 Ulrich Herrmann Education through science? The Humboldt Myth This lecture explored the question of the importance of teaching at universities today, which defines itself primarily through science and research. Referring back to Wilhelm vom Humboldt's new idea of ​​science, the demands on a modern university become apparent: on the one hand, to cultivate a science as a whole and not just extracts that appear useful; on the other hand, to renew the concept of science in academic teaching again and again in such a way that both enthusiasm for research is aroused and young academics experience a scientific education. Brochure, DIN A5 format, 42 pages, ISSN, 1999 Volume 2 Otma Issing Stable Money Foundation of the Social Market Economy On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the currency reform in West Germany and the introduction of the social market economy by Ludwig Erhard, Professor Issing spoke at Ludwig Erhard lectures on the principles of the social market economy, which are also valid for the development of the new economic order in Euroland. The lecture explains the importance of stable money for the forthcoming monetary and currency policy of the European Central Bank in Euroland on the basis of the Maastricht Treaties. This provides insights into the structural requirements of the inevitable controversies and conflicts between the monetary policy mandate of the European Central Bank and the economic policy interests of national governments. Brochure, DIN A5 format, 42 pages, ISBN X, 1999 the traction battery, the chemical tank of electric and hybrid vehicles. This is ensured by a fully automatic battery management system developed by his working group. The current load on the memory is determined by cyclically measuring the most important parameters of all cells (temperature, voltage, current, etc.). The system compares and calculates the values ​​and monitors operations. It provides information for analysis, controls cooling and protects the battery from overload. It can be adapted to a wide variety of types and sizes of batteries. Thanks to its hierarchical structure based on the modular principle, the system can also handle large amounts of data. uni ulm internally 8 times a year professional qualification, but secondary degree The Bachelor's / Master's degree moves into mathematics. Deviating from time to time, the master's part within the focus of the political assessment, albeit the bachelor's / master's degree in mathematics, is represented by Dean Prof. Dr. Werner core content remains the same. This is also the case in mathematics, which has a pronounced turn to the applied areas that the Faculty of Mathematics and Economics for the winter semester 2001/02 in addition to the diploma and Kratz the opinion that the Bachelor does not leave the university, but the studies with the Has completed the target of the master playback. While the teaching degree opened at the end of the two, which used to place the scientific emphasis on number theory in the Ulm mathematics diploma, it is now becoming broadest. In the six-semester Bachelor's section, the core mathematical content is taught. In the subsequent equivalent, should continue. No matter, the Ulm mathematics is the largest in numbers at a German university. Together meaning in the stochastics (probability theory master's degree are different with the economics and statistic) set. With the thematic deepening possible in Ulm. Up to the bachelor’s degree, with which it is associated in a faculty, teaching in the German course, which was “invented” in 1977, currently counts more than studies, business mathematics, corresponding developments were discernible early on. Today the area is very much expanded, language, then in English. The aim is to make the course attractive to foreign students as well. Bachelor's degree. The number will rise sharply in the next few years, since the course in economics will not include actuarial science until the winter semester. Master trains are currently opened in 1999/2000. These deal with the general trend. Politics was, so only just in the fourth evaluation and treatment of financial would like in the »bachelor« one semester stands. Per semester, 100 students can see risks on a mathematical basis here, in particular. They are flanked so not to be taken. The degree in insurance and financial services. Finally, her view, according to which the willingness to study in Germany, measured against other industrialized countries, also focuses on actuarial sciences, furthermore in financial economics - stochastics and financial mathematics and accordingly the science, health economics, are also called the main number of university graduates - computer science, international economics as well as sustainable economy. With the upcoming C4 appointments in finance and finance mathematics and the establishment of an “International Accounting” department, the basis for the growing need in teaching will be broadened; the process of filling the C4 professorship in economic policy, which has been vacant since Prof. Klump was appointed, is also ongoing. Against the background of the importance that the subject has across all branches of science, the Ulm economics have long been fulfilling teaching export obligations in practically all Ulm courses. So things are on the right track in the Faculty of Mathematics and Economics. But there is also a lasting downer: the fact that there is not enough money available for the regular subscription to the necessary scientific journals.

13 students. According to the current state of affairs, Ulm University has to save 60% of the costs for magazine subscriptions. That will hit math hard too. According to Dean Kratz, the students suffer less from this; for the next generation of academics, however, for the doctoral and post-doctoral candidates, this must inevitably result in serious negative consequences. The problem, based on a general shortage of funds and exacerbated by increased subscription prices and the dollar rate, is of course not specific to Ulm, but affects all universities. Politicians are therefore called upon to ensure that the elementary tools of science are available and that the supply of literature can be ensured to the extent required. welf ruess werkstätten Welf Ruess GmbH joinery furniture store facilities Ulmer Straße Günzburg Fon 08221/31088 Fax 08221/33652 Consulting planning production Ricardo Orellana, Rajan Prasanna and Shi Xiaolei (from left; right Olaf Scholz from the management of LEG) received the LEG sponsorship award 2001 .The best of the years in Communications Technology Presentation of the LEG Prize On the occasion of the 2001 summer semester opening of the international graduate course Communications Technology on May 2, the prize donated by the State Development Corporation of Baden-Württemberg (LEG) to promote the next generation of students at Ulm University was awarded to awarded third time. It was awarded to the three best of the class in 2000/2001 on the Communications Technology graduate course, Rajan Prasanna (1st prize, DM 3,000) as well as Ricardo Orellana (2nd prize, DM 1,500) and Shi Xiaolei (2nd prize, DM 1,500). Rector Prof. Dr. Hans Wolff and from the state development company Olaf Scholz (deputy for the managing director of LEG) presented the award. The most important selection criterion is the speedy completion of the course. Only those students are shortlisted who have passed all the compulsory exams of the first two semesters without delay. The grade point average decides among them. Also sets the

14 14 Students The 2001 summer semester of the international Master’s degree in Communications Technology (Photo: ZPhGR) Nomination requires proof of having attended the German course offered to foreign students. Rajan Prasanna is Indian. He received his Bachelor of Engineering (electrical engineering and electronics) from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in Pilani, Rajasthan, India, in 1998 and then worked at the Daimler-Chrysler Research Center in India. There he worked, among other things, on a project aimed at the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the use of navigation and radio satellites for the investigation of current road conditions. Prasanna has been studying in Ulm since March 2000. Ricardo Orellana, born in Tegucigalpa, received a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering from the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras in 1999. Among other things, he worked as an engineer at Honducomp, a computer manufacturer in Tegucigalpa. He has been studying in Ulm since the summer semester of 2000. Shi Xiaolei is from Shanghai, China. He obtained a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from Beijing Polytechnic University in 1998. He then worked in the maintenance center of Beijing Telecom and later involved in the development of a network management system for this company. Shi Xiaolei has been studying Communications Technology in Ulm since the summer semester of 2000. The celebration of the presentation of the LEG sponsorship award was combined with an honor for the founder and, since then, director of the Ulm University Choir, Church and University Music Director Albrecht Haupt. He received the university medal (see the article on p. 32 f). Attractive in the mandatory nature of the curriculum The bachelor's or universities are working on a new product The bachelor's / master's degree program modularization means that it is about to be spread across a broad technical front, in addition to structuring the study workload in precisely defined sections that specifically define the traditional study objectives of the diploma, master's degree and times and each with a state examination at the German universities (and universities of applied sciences) completed an examination. In general, the "bachelor" is understood to be a degree that can be obtained after six semesters, so that there is no summary examination at the end. With the completion of the individual modules and exams, so-called credit points are earned. is achieved, the basic course They form the basis for the related diploma or master’s course, is tightly organized and modularized in the curriculum and certifies professional ability. In the case of corresponding performance, the master’s degree can then be followed by proof of participation and performance and thus for the final certificate. Credit points are also available for periods of study that have been completed at a foreign university. Thanks to the »tariffs« set up for this purpose. The “Master” is not a comparability decree or the diploma. asked for more, but everything just a question of numerics. Professional qualification Opinions about the bachelor's degree differ widely in all affected groups. It is not uncommon for the faculties or departments to recommend under no circumstances to leave the university with a “bachelor”, but rather to join the master’s degree. Such as the Tübingen sinologists. But also the mathematicians in Ulm, who want to introduce the Bachelor's / Master's degree in the 2001/2002 winter semester after the computer scientists at the University of Ulm had gone ahead with it a year earlier, unabashedly favor the continuation of the studies from the outset. This does not necessarily coincide with the political intention behind the BA / MA wave, which is currently preparing to cover all universities and almost all subjects. Politics does not see the bachelor's degree as a renamed preliminary diploma or a renamed intermediate examination, but rather a professional qualification "with which the majority of students leave the university". At least that is what Baden-Württemberg's (still) Science Minister Klaus von Trotha thinks. After gaining professional experience, these bachelors might come back to the university for further training. Only »a minority (set) their training directly in a postgraduate

15 students 15 dium fort "(attempto! Forum of the University of Tübingen, April 2001)." When a third of an age group studies, this population group cannot - and does not want - to be active in research alone "(op. Cit.), Von Trotha explains his point of view. Well, everyone is convinced of this, but not of the associated premise that only future researchers need to have a diploma or a master's or master's degree. In truth, the minister does not even mean that every diploma or master's degree necessarily ends up in research. He is interested in something completely different: the large number of dropouts: »Dropout rates of 70, 80 or even 90 percent are alarm signals; the associated waste of resources with simultaneous complaints about alleged chronic overload and underfunding of the system can no longer be communicated ... "(aao) catch-all fact that is a clear word, now we see much more clearly, and the whole study reform process is becoming also more coherent in itself. Prof. Dr. Eberhard Schaich, Rector of the University of Tübingen, sums it up as follows: "I see the danger that Bachelor graduates will be seen on the job market as secret dropouts who have not managed to complete a full course" (op. Cit.). This may result in a particularly urgent need for the above-mentioned recommendation to the students not to stop with the bachelor's degree, but to continue in any case (if at all possible). In the light of the ability to study and the success of the course, the bachelor's degree - this is the content of the ministerial as well as the academic considerations - has the quality of a “catch-all”. And this role could even become even more important if the current federal education policy succeeds in persuading not only 30 or 35 percent of young people of one age group to take up studies, but 50 percent, which is what is currently being proclaimed incessantly , consider necessary. In Germany the inclination to study is much lower than in comparable industrialized countries and in any case too low, which is also proven by the current shortage of skilled workers in information and communication technology, in electrical engineering or in mechanical engineering. Experts such as the chairman of the University Rectors' Conference, Landfried, and the President of the German University Association, Schiedermair, warn against placing hopes in an "academization of society", but in the face of the Basta mode in which the incumbent federal government claims rule of interpretation can they just stay callers in the desert. There can be no doubt that the reservoir of talent in an imaginary population is not arbitrarily large and certainly not inexhaustible; there is also no question that the 56% studying US-Americans cannot be compared one-to-one with 35% studying Germans. But these are considerations that the Ministry of Education and Research does not accept. But it may not have to be accepted against the background of the now extensive, demanding and target-related graduation of university degrees. Fast graduates Here the question arises at the latest where the impulses for this development come from. Obviously they come not least from industry - at least from parts of it (because the short courses do not arouse undivided enthusiasm in all branches - in the chemical industry, for example, skepticism predominates). But the so-called IT or information technology sector as well as other branches of technology may hope to contribute to the solution of the time and again alleged contemporary personnel problems of students who spend not six or seven, but only three years at the university. The shortage of personnel is, it seems, like the big flood over the companies. Nobody has

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17 students 17 expected that the need for specialists would increase to such an extent. But that is only one side of the finding, the other has to do with culpable omissions. It is undisputed that business and industry have neglected their own training obligations for years and decades, with the result that the formerly exemplary German dual education system has lost its effectiveness and importance. In the economic and industrial sectors concerned, it is not only workers who are lacking who must have a university background. But the dual educational structures, which could now make important contributions to the training of the skilled workers required, have not been maintained and adequately developed and their performance has not been strengthened or even maintained. On the contrary. Sometimes the impression arises that they have withered into a better educational alibi for the jobs on the negative list. Now the public sector, now the universities, should limit the damage and quickly provide graduates with whom the vacancies can be filled. Learning by the job takes care of the rest. No highly trained specialists The bachelor's degree is meanwhile put into a coherent, labor-market-related context from the political point of view. Something like this: »The developments in the professional and working world also indicate that it is often not so very special knowledge elements that are needed as general competencies (...) This corresponds to the demands from the economy for greater consideration of key qualifications in studies. .. «(from Trotha, aao). One and the same sentence goes on to say that this also corresponds to "the demand (...) for the knowledge acquired through studies to be more applied to various practical requirements." And elsewhere: "The training offers must be more differentiated according to the training objective, content and quality." However, the semantic aspect remains to what extent "general competencies" and "key qualifications" should be conveyed by precisely differentiating the training content Secret of this derivation. But the train is rolling and gaining momentum regardless of the fact that there are, for example, student councils who provide the "high-quality scientific training currently offered by master's and diploma courses at German universities" through a "school-based bachelor's degree" (loc. Cit.) see lost. As already mentioned, the enthusiasm for parauniversity training is also limited. Only Dr. Michael Rogowski, President of the Federation of German Industries, apparently has no doubts about the usefulness of the Bachelor's degree. "We don't need highly trained specialists," he explains (a.a.o.). Of course, employees with dual training would do a good deal. Of course, the bachelor's degree has attractive elements, such as the waiver of cumulative final exams and the orientation-giving compulsory curriculum elements, which save the less well-organized students from wasting themselves and their time in the freedom of the individual curriculum design. This being taken by hand undoubtedly suits some and some people expressly, and therefore it is probably not a very unimportant motive for the choice of the Bachelor train. Later you will see what can be made of it. The Tübingen sports scientists already have clear ideas in this respect: "Clubs, for example, do not need fully academically trained sports teachers and cannot pay for them" (op. Cit.). Here, as well as in sports studios and companies, an interesting field of activity opens up for the sports bachelor's degree, for example as a gymnast, animator and wellness gymnast. The career prospects for most of the other bachelors are far from being that clear and groundbreaking. 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18 18 Miscellaneous The time of death is the proven state of brain death About transplantation and organ donation An exhibition in the town hall of Ulm from April 2001 From 17th to 21stIn April 2001, an exhibition on the subject of "Transplantation and Organ Donation" took place in the town hall in Ulm. It was organized by the Transplant Center (headed by Prof. Dr. Dietmar Abendroth) in the Thoracic and Vascular Surgery Department (Medical Director Prof. Dr. Ludger Sunder-Plassmann) at Ulm University. A series of lectures that took place during the exhibition days provided information on the relevant questions connected with this medical complex and its sub-aspects. The discrepancy between the willingness to donate organs and the need for donor organs remains large. In Germany, for example, around patients wait for an organ, the majority for a kidney, others for the heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, bone marrow, bone tissue or cornea. Almost 300 patients are on the Ulm waiting list for a new kidney or pancreas. Of these, 70 patients were added in 2000 alone. The need for donor organs is growing. It was therefore a particular concern of the town hall exhibition to contribute to the reduction of fears and reservations about organ donation through comprehensive medical education. At the same time, the exhibition provided information about the great achievements of the facilities at the Ulm University Hospital that were involved in the transplant center. For example, 64 kidneys, 7 pancreases and 45 corneas were transplanted last year. The Ulm Transplant Center is now 31 years old. During this time, almost all kidneys and 50 pancreases were transferred, thereby significantly improving the quality of life of the organ recipients. The success is based on the good cooperation between the individual clinics and departments at Ulm University. But they are inconceivable without the willingness to donate organs. Strengthening this willingness as far as possible is therefore an urgent concern of medicine in the service of patients whose life or quality of life depends on a donor organ. Emotionally charged Only organs could be transferred nationwide in 2000, 2% less than in 1999 (3,896), according to statistics from the German Organ Transplantation Foundation (DSO), which is responsible for organizing organ donation in Germany, especially the number the number of heart transplants has decreased from 500 in 1999. In Germany, patients are waiting for a donor kidney. to 418 in A decrease also in the kidneys: a total of kidneys were transferred last year (1999: 2,275) of these organs came from deceased, 346 from living donors. This means that living kidney donation has decreased by almost 9% compared to the previous year (380). In contrast, the living donation of liver parts has more than doubled, from 41 (1999) to 90 (2000). This also explains the increase in liver transplants from 757 (1999) to 780 in The number of lung and pancreas transplants also increased (1999: 146 and 218, 2000: 158 and 244). One reason for the overall decline in transplants is a slight decrease in organ donation. In 2000, organs were removed from deceased donors for transplantation, in 1999 it was another reason, according to the DSO, is that fewer organs came from the Eurotransplant partner countries, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria and Slovenia and other countries. In addition, the hospitals reported more potential organ donors, but even more withdrew as donors for medical reasons, as Prof. Dr. Martin Molzahn, CEO of the DSO, explains. The relatives also refused to have organs removed more often. In Germany alone there are currently just under patients waiting for a kidney. About a fifth of patients who rely on a liver, lungs, or heart die before an organ is available. Organ donation is still a sensitive, emotionally charged and fearful topic in people's minds. Often the willingness fails due to uncertainties associated with the concept of brain death, the medical and legal prerequisite for organ removal. Opinions are divided on the importance of "brain death" as a medical category. Critics of organ donation see the differentiation of the concept of death into "brain death" and "clinical death" as a device to justify organ removal; on the other hand, some proponents consider it unhappy because it gives the false impression that it is not identical with definitive death. The German Medical Association and DSO are trying to clarify. The following text follows, largely verbatim, the "position of the Scientific Advisory Board of the German Medical Association on the criteria of brain death" as well as the "thoughts on brain death" of the DSO.

19 Miscellaneous 19 Kidney transplantation Older than transplant medicine The diagnosis of brain death is more than 30 years old. As a result of the expansion of the rescue service and the further development of intensive care medicine, an increasing number of patients with severe brain damage, coma, respiratory arrest and cerebral perfusion were observed who previously would hardly have reached the hospital alive. The question arose as to how long the intensive care measures with intubation and artificial ventilation can be promising and when they can be ended. At the German Congress of Surgeons in Munich in 1964, a first, simple diagnostic scheme was discussed. The German Society for Surgery described these signs of death in more detail in 1968. In the same year the Harvard criteria were published in the USA. According to the DSO, it should be expressly pointed out that at the time of the development of brain death diagnostics for intensive care medicine in Germany, there was still no transplant medicine, the Scientific Advisory Board of the German Medical Association, headed by neurosurgeon H. Kuhlendahl, formulated the first decision-making aids to determine brain death the first update of the criteria catalog. Technical progress, especially in neurophysiological and nuclear medicine procedures, and the introduction of transcranial Doppler sonography required further updates in 1991 and 1997. The clinical signs of brain death, on the other hand, have been unreservedly valid for three decades and evidence of brain death is recognized worldwide as a sure sign of death. Brain death is defined as the irreversible cessation of all functions of the cerebrum and cerebellum as well as the brain stem (failure of all brain functions) when the cardiovascular function is still maintained through controlled ventilation. The basic conception of the criteria of brain death is based on the pathophysiology of its development, the exact adherence to requirements, the determination of the clinical symptoms of coma, brain stem timelessly contemporary. Arthe from COR. The sitting experience with a variable backrest. And award for the highest design quality. Areflexia and respiratory failure. Proof of the irreversibility of the loss of brain function is to be provided either by repeated clinical findings after an appropriate observation period or by supplementary examinations. This third update summarizes the special recommendations for age-differentiated diagnostic procedures in children in a separate section. The diagnosis of brain death can be carried out in any hospital with an intensive care unit by appropriately qualified doctors without additional diagnostic equipment. Intensive Care Unit Only Brain death only occurs in intensive care units, where artificial ventilation and cardiac assistance are available. The brain is a tissue that swells with even minor damage or injury. This creates space problems in the bony skull. The swelling pushes the brain out of the occipital cavity in a self-destructive manner and deprives its own blood supply. No blood means no oxygen and after ten minutes death if the brain COR for sitting

20 20 Various things that must not have anything to do with a transplant carry out the examinations. After careful examination of the prerequisites (proof of brain destruction and exclusion of all disturbing influences), the irrevocable failure of all brain functions with simultaneous proof of the missing brain waves or the blood flow is confirmed beyond doubt. A link between brain death and transplantation emerged when it was recognized in the 1960s that brain-dead people can donate organs. Two independent doctors (neurologist / intensive care physician), who are not allowed to have anything to do with a transplant, carry out the examinations and diagnose brain death. swelling cannot be treated successfully in time. If you keep the ventilator running, the heart will continue beating for a while after brain death, with additional medication. As long as blood is still flowing through the liver, kidneys and intestines, they work. The half liter of blood per minute that can no longer flow through the brain due to the swelling is diverted through the blood vessels of the face, which becomes pink and warm. Mollaret and Goullon first described the condition in which the heart continues to beat with mechanical help while the brain has already died in 1959 as a condition beyond the coma.The German Society for Surgery recognized that cardiac arrest does not correspond to human death, because it is known can overcome. On the other hand, the complete failure of the dead brain is death-definitive. Under these circumstances, putrefaction begins to set in the brain while the heart is still artificially beating. Significant signs are the irreversible lack of self-breathing, brainstem reactions (including protective reflexes), brain waves and cerebral blood flow. Resuscitation of the brain is impossible. Two independent doctors (neurologist / intensive care physician), At the time of the development of brain death diagnostics for intensive care medicine, there was no transplant medicine in Germany (picture: preparation of organ removal).