Could Neanderthals be taught by a human?

Stone Age / In the beginning there was fire

What makes a person into a person?

  1. Read through the texts.
  2. Then work on the quizzes.

Texts

What is the difference between humans and monkeys / animals?

About 2 million years ago, the ancestors of today's humans began to leave the jungle and colonize the savannah. In order to be able to spot enemies in time in this grassy landscape with few trees, people kept getting up.

The upright gait made it possible for people to use their front limbs to grip objects.

Since the eyes could see further when walking upright, more visual (=visible) Information added. In order to process these, a larger brain mass was required.

Did you already know that the brain needs up to a third of the energy it consumes? In order for the brain to grow, people needed more and better food. As persistent runners, they managed to chase animals until they could be killed. The protein-rich (=protein-rich) Food allowed the brain to grow steadily.

Lucy

Lucy is the name given by researchers to an early human woman whose well-preserved skeleton shows clear adaptations to the upright gait. It belongs to the Australopithecus afarensis, which is one of the most famous species in the genus Australopithecus is. It lived about 4 to 2.9 million years ago.

Becomes tribal history Australopithecus afarensis near the development line to the genus homo posed and thus also to today's people homo sapiens.

The best known fossil of the species is Lucy. Lucy was found in Hadar, Ethiopia in 1974 by Donald Johanson and Tom Gray. She was probably a grown woman of about 25 years (although some researchers believe the find to be male). Their skeleton is one of the best preserved skeletons of early real humans. Lucy died about 3.2 million years ago. The skeleton structure shows clear adaptations to the upright gait.

The upright gait is also evidenced by footprints that Mary Leakey found in volcanic ash from Laetoli in Ethiopia. According to William Sellars of the University in Loughbourough evidence that there are traces Australopithecus afarensis moved in a completely upright gait at 0.6 and 1.3 m / s. The calculation was carried out using the dimensions of Lucy and the tracks using a model simulation.

Neanderthals vs Homo Sapiens

Fossil finds of "classic" Neanderthals (selection)

The Neanderthals (formerly also: Neanderthaler; Homo neanderthalensis) is an extinct relative of today's humans from the genus Homo. The name "Neandertaler" goes back to the Neandertal, a valley section of the Düssel located between the cities of Erkrath and Mettmann.

The discovery of fire

When exactly our ancestors began to use fire is a matter of debate among scientists. Presumably, Homo Erectus (Latin: "the erect man") began with it, who was added 1.8 million years ago as another prehistoric species. However, the researchers now believe that people back then were not able to light the fire themselves. There weren't any matches or lighters yet. However, our ancestors kept a naturally formed fire alive as a campfire.
Already with that a lot changed: The Stone Age people could now cook their food, they could fix vessels made of clay by burning them. Heating up food in particular made a big difference for people: some roots were only edible when they were cooked, and many things became more digestible and easier to digest. This meant that the stomach and intestines had less work and people could take in more energy from eating. The brain in particular benefited from this - it grew larger and larger over the course of the following millennia.
And then, 32,000 years ago, it was invented: the first lighter. People discovered that a spark is created when they hit two specific stones together. One contained the mineral pyrite (also called pebbles) and the second was a flint. With the spark, brushwood or tinder fungus could be made to glow. "It burns like tinder," we still say today - and we are referring to a fungus called tinder sponge that grows on tree trunks and is particularly suitable for making fires. It is, so to speak, the first barbecue lighter. Since then it has not been that bad if the campfire did go out - provided you had a piece of pyrite on hand.
The discovery of fire (geolino)

Interactive exercises

Hominization - the evolution of humans

What advantages did the following changes bring?

walking uprightlarger field of viewGripping objects
hunthigher protein foodnew sources of food
bigger brainhigher intelligenceSuccess in the hunt

In the beginning there was fire

Initially, our ancestors considered a naturally occurring fire to be Campfire alive.

Already with that much changed: With fire you could eat Cook: Some roots only became edible through boiling, a lot became more digestible and easier to digest. This meant that the stomach and intestines had less work and people could take in more energy from eating. The brain in particular benefited from this - it grew larger and larger over the course of the following millennia.

And then, 32,000 years ago, it was invented: the first Lighter. If you have the mineral pyrite (also called pebbles) and a Flint collide, arise Spark. With the spark, brushwood or tinder sponge could be made to glow.

Neanderthals

A couple met about 70,000 years ago homo sapiens set off from East Africa. In the Mediterranean area, these ancestors of today's population first encountered another Kind of humanwho had come from the north: that one too Neanderthals once came from Africa, its ancestors only set out about 400,000 years ago.

One can only speculate how these encounters between the two Types of people expired - was it peaceful, was there fighting? What is certain is that Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis had children together. And practically all non-Africans in the world are descendants of this mixture. Like a distant echo, you can still find an average of around one and a half to two percent today Neanderthal genome in the DNA of most People.

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